0001: The SEED Process#

SEED-0001: The SEED Process

Status: Open for Comments Intent Approved Last Call Accepted Rejected

Proposal Date: 2022-10-31

CL: pwrev/116577

Author: The Pigweed Team

Facilitator: Unassigned


SEEDs are the process through which substantial changes to Pigweed are proposed, reviewed, and decided by community stakeholders to collaboratively drive the project in a favorable direction.

This document outlines the SEED process at a high level. Details about how SEEDs should be written and structured are described in 0002: SEED Template.


As Pigweed and its community grow, it becomes important to ensure that the Pigweed team, Pigweed users, and other community stakeholders align on the future of the project. To date, development of Pigweed has primarily been driven by the core team, and community feedback has been mostly informal and undocumented.

SEEDs are a formalized process for authoring, reviewing, and ratifying proposed changes to Pigweed.

The SEED process has several goals.

  • Increase the visibility of proposed changes to Pigweed early on and allow interested parties to engage in their design.

  • Maintain a public record of design decisions rendered during Pigweed’s development and the rationales behind them.

  • Ensure consistent API design across Pigweed modules through a formal team-wide review process.

Active SEEDs are discussed by the community through Gerrit code review comments as well as a SEEDs chatroom in Pigweed’s Discord server. Decisions are ultimately rendered by a review committee of Pigweed team members.

When is a SEED required?#

SEEDs should be written by any developer wishing to make a “substantial” change to Pigweed. Whether or not a change is considered “substantial” varies depending on what parts of Pigweed it touches and may change over time as the project evolves. Some general guidelines are established below.

Examples of changes considered “substantial” include, but are not limited to:

  • Adding a new top-level module.

  • Modifying a widely-used public API.

  • A breaking update to typical Pigweed user workflows (bootstrap, build setup, pw commands, etc.).

  • Changing any data interchange or storage protocol or format (e.g. transport protocols, flash layout), unless the change is small and backwards compatible (e.g. adding a field to an exchanged Protobuf message).

  • Changes to Pigweed’s code policy, style guides, or other project-level guidelines.

  • Whenever a Pigweed team member asks you to write a SEED.

Conversely, the following changes would likely not require a SEED:

  • Fixing typos.

  • Refactoring internal module code without public API changes.

  • Adding minor parallel operations to existing APIs (e.g. Read(ConstByteSpan) vs Read(const byte*, size_t)).

If you’re unsure whether a change you wish to make requires a SEED, it’s worth asking the Pigweed team in our Discord server prior to writing any code.


Suppose you’d like to propose a new Pigweed RPC Over Smoke Signals protocol.

  1. If you haven’t already, clone the Pigweed repository and set it up locally, following the Get started With upstream Pigweed development guide.

  2. Check out a clean Git branch off of main for your SEED.

    git checkout -b seed-rpc-smoke-signals
  3. From an activated Pigweed environment, run the command pw seed create to interactively create a SEED.

    This command will prompt you for a SEED number (use the default it provides unless you have a specific reason not to), title, and list of authors. Using these, it will generate a SEED document and add it to the build, as well as automatically creating two CLs in Gerrit: one claiming your SEED number, and the second being the actual CL in which your SEED will be reviewed.

    Created two CLs for SEED-5309:
    -  SEED-5309: Claim SEED number
    -  SEED-5309: Pigweed RPC Over Smoke Signals


    pw seed create will create and push Git commits for you. Make sure to run it from a clean branch.

  4. Open the “Claim SEED number” CL and add GWSQ as a reviewer. Set Pigweed-Auto-Submit to +1. This change will be approved promptly and lock in your assigned SEED number.

  5. Fill out your proposal document, using the SEED template as a guide.

    If your SEED requires additional resources such as images, place them within a subdirectory named identically to your document without the .rst extension. These should be listed as inputs in your SEED’s GN doc group target.

  6. When you feel you have enough substantive content in your proposal to be reviewed, push it up to Gerrit and switch the change from WIP to Active. This will begin the open comments period.

    Congrats! You are now a SEED author.

  7. The Pigweed team will now assign your SEED a SEED facilitator. The facilitator will leave a comment on your SEED asking you to add their name to the facilitator: entry in the header of your SEED.

    The SEED facilitator is a member of the Pigweed team who will help move your through the process. The SEED facilitator will be added as a reviewer on your SEED and will be your primary point of contact on the Pigweed team.

    Update the status of your SEED to "Open for Comments" and set the assigned facilitator in its build target.

    pw_seed("5309") {
      changelist = 987654
      title = "pw_rpc Over Smoke Signals"
      status = "Open for Comments"
      author = "Your Name"
      facilitator = "Your Facilitator"
  8. Create a thread for your SEED in the #seed channel of Pigweed’s Discord server.

  9. Engage with reviewers to iterate on your proposal through its comment period.

  10. During the comment period, the facilitator may comment that your proposal has received “Approval of Intent” and request in the SEED comments for interested reviewers to identify themselves.

    The SEED status should be changed to Intent Approved.

    At this point, initial implementation of the feature may begin landing in Pigweed upstream. Any CLs prior to the SEED landing should CC both the facilitator and other commenters who’ve indictated their interest in reviewing.

    All code landed during this period should be marked as experimental and protected by visibility limitations.

  11. When a tentative decision has been reached, the facilitator will comment on your proposal with a summary of the discussion and reasoning, moving it into its Last Call phase (as described in the Lifecycle section).

  12. Following the conclusion of the Last Call period (one week from the start of Last Call), the facilitator will sign off on the CL with a +2 vote, allowing it to be submitted. Once a +2 has been given, the SEED author should update the SEED index and submit the CL.

    Before submitting, update your SEED’s GN target to point to the local RST file and to reflect its final status.

    pw_seed("5309") {
      sources = [ "5309-pw_rpc-over-smoke-signals.rst" ]
      title = "pw_rpc Over Smoke Signals"
      status = "Accepted"
      author = "Your Name"

The relationship between SEEDs and code#

Some common questions raised by participants in the SEED process revolve around how SEED proposals relate to implemented code. This section addresses several of those questions.

When should implementation of a SEED proposal begin?#


The SEED’s author can start writing code as soon as the intent of the proposal is approved.

Generally speaking, there are two stages of approval for the majority of SEED proposals. The first is approval of the intent of the SEED — that is, stakeholders agree that it represents a problem that Pigweed should address, and the general outline of the solution is reasonable.

Following this comes the approval of the specific details of the proposed solution. Depending on the nature of the SEED, this could range from higher-level component hierarchies and interactions down to concrete API design and precise implementation details.

Once the intent of a SEED is approved, authors are free to begin implementing code for their proposal if they wish. This can serve as an additional reference for reviewers to aid their understanding of the proposal, and allow both the proposal and implementation to co-evolve throughout the review process.

Code written alongside an active SEED can be reviewed and even merged into Pigweed, hidden behind experimental feature flags.

Will approved SEEDs be updated in response to code changes?#


Approved SEEDs will not be updated as code evolves. Use module documentation as a current reference.

SEED documents are intended to capture decisions made at a point in time with their justification. They are not living documents which reflect the current state of the codebase. Generally speaking, SEEDs will not be updated following their acceptance and will likely diverge from the actual code as time passes. Some SEEDs may even become entirely obsolete if the team revisited the issue and decided to move in a different direction, becoming purely a historical record of design decisions.

There are exceptions when a SEED may be modified after it has been approved; typically, these will occur shortly after the approval if its implementer finds that an important detail was incorrect or missing.

If a SEED/s content is obsolete or outdated, it should ideally be marked as such by adding a notice or warning to the top of the SEED. However, these indications are marked on a best-effort basis, so SEEDs should not be be used as the primary source of documentation for a Pigweed feature.

Users should instead rely on module documentation for up-to-date information about the state of a Pigweed module or feature. SEEDs can be used as an additional resource to learn why something was designed the way that it is, but is never necessary to understand functionality or usage.

SEED documents#

SEEDs are written as ReST documents integrated with the rest of Pigweed’s documentation. They live directly within the core Pigweed repository, under a top-level seed/ subdirectory.

The structure of SEED documents themselves, their format, required sections, and other considerations are outlined in 0002: SEED Template.

The first 100 SEEDs (0000-0100) are Meta-SEEDs. These are reserved for internal Pigweed usage and generally detail SEED-related processes. Unlike regular SEEDs, Meta-SEEDs are living documents which may be revised over time.

The lifecycle of a SEED#

A SEED proposal undergoes several phases between first being published and a final decision.

Draft The SEED is a work-in-progress and not yet ready for comments.

  • The SEED exists in Gerrit as a Work-In-Progress (WIP) change.

  • Has an assigned SEED number and exists in the index.

  • Not yet ready to receive feedback.

Open for Comments The SEED is soliciting feedback.

  • The SEED has sufficient substance to be reviewed, as determined by its author.

  • A thread for the SEED is created in Discord to promote the proposal and open discussion.

  • Interested parties comment on the SEED to evaluate the proposal, raise questions and concerns, and express support or opposition.

  • Back and forth discussion between the author and reviewers, resulting in modifications to the document.

  • The SEED remains open for as long as necessary. Internally, Pigweed’s review committee will regularly meet to consider active SEEDs and determine when to advance to them the next stage.

  • Open SEEDs are assigned facilitators in the core Pigweed team, who are primarily responsible for engaging with the author to move the SEED through its review process.

Last Call A tentative decision has been reached, but commenters may raise final objections.

  • A tentative decision on the SEED has been made. The decision is issued at the best judgement of the SEED’s facilitator when they feel there has been sufficient discussion on the tradeoffs of the proposal to do so.

  • Transition is triggered manually by its facilitator, with a comment on the likely outcome of the SEED (acceptance / rejection).

  • On entering Last Call, the visibility of the SEED is widely boosted through Pigweed’s communication channels (Discord, mailing list, Pigweed Live, etc.) to solicit any strong objections from stakeholders.

  • Typically, Last Call lasts for a set period of 7 calendar days, after which the final decision is formalized.

  • If any substantial new arguments are raised during Last Call, the review committee may decide to re-open the discussion, returning the SEED to a commenting phase.

Accepted The proposal is ratified and ready for implementation.

  • The SEED is submitted into the Pigweed repository.

  • A tracking bug is created for the implementation, if applicable.

  • The SEED may no longer be modified (except minor changes such as typos). Follow-up discussions on the same topic require a new SEED.

Rejected The proposal has been turned down.

  • The SEED is submitted into the Pigweed repository to provide a permanent record of the considerations made for future reference.

  • The SEED may no longer be modified.

Deprecated The proposal was originally accepted and implemented but later removed.

  • The proposal was once implemented but later undone.

  • The SEED’s changelog contains justification for the deprecation.

Superseded The proposal was originally accepted and implemented but significant portions were later overruled by a different SEED.

  • A newer SEED proposal revisits the same topic and proposal and redesigns significant parts of the original.

  • The SEED is marked as superseded with a reference to the newer proposal.


Document format#

Three different documentation formats are considered for SEEDs:

  • ReST: Used for Pigweed’s existing documentation, making it a natural option.

  • Google Docs: The traditional way of writing SEED-like investigation and design documents.

  • Markdown: Ubiquitous across open-source projects, with extensive tooling available.


Based on the evaluated criteria, ReST documents provide the best overall SEED experience. The primary issues with ReST exist around contributor tooling, which may be mitigated with additional investment from the Pigweed team.

The table below details the main criteria evaluated for each format, with more detailed explanations following.




Google Docs

Straightforward integration with existing docs

Indexable on pigweed.dev

Auditable through source control

Archive of review comments and changes

Accessible to contributors

Extensive styling and formatting options

Easy sharing between Google and external contributors



SEED documents should seamlessly integrate with the rest of Pigweed’s docs.

As all of Pigweed’s documentation is written using ReST, it becomes a natural choice for SEEDs. The use of other formats requires additional scaffolding and may not provide as seamless of an experience.



Design decisions in SEEDs should be readily available for Pigweed users.

pigweed.dev has a search function allowing users to search the site for Pigweed-related keywords. As SEEDs contain design discussion and rationales, having them appear in these searches offers useful information to users.

The search function is provided by Pigweed’s Sphinx build, so only documents which exist as part of that (ReST / Markdown) are indexed.



Changes to SEED documents should be reviewed and recorded.

ReST and Markdown documents exist directly within Pigweed’s source repository after being submitted, requiring any further changes to go through a code review process.

Conversely, Google Docs may be edited by anyone with access, making them prone to unintentional modification.

Archive of discussions#


Discussions during the review of a SEED should be well-archived for future reference.

ReST and Markdown documentation are submitted through Gerrit and follow the standard code review process. Review comments on the changes are saved in Gerrit and are easily revisited. Incremental updates to the SEED during the review process are saved as patch sets.

Comments in Google Docs are more difficult to find once they are resolved, and document changes do not exist as clearly-defined snapshots, making the history of a SEED harder to follow.



SEEDs should be easy for contributors to write.

Both Markdown and Google Docs are easy to write, familiar to many, and have extensive tooling available. SEED documents can be written outside of the Pigweed ecosystem using authors’ preferred tools.

ReST, on the other hand, is an unfamiliar and occasionally strange format, and its usage for SEEDs is heavily tied to Pigweed’s documentation build. Authors are required to set up and constantly re-run this build, slowing iteration.

Format and styling#


SEED authors should have options for formatting various kinds of information and data in their proposals.

Markdown intentionally only offers limited control over document formatting, whereas ReST has a wide selection of directives and Google Docs functions as a traditional WYSIWYG editor, making them far more flexible.

Sharing between Google and non-Google#


Both Google and non-Google contributors should easily be able to write and review SEEDs.

Due to security and legal concerns, managing ownership of Google Docs between internal and external contributors is nontrivial.

Text documentation formats like Markdown and ReST live within the Pigweed repository, and as such follow the standard code contribution process.