API reference#

pw_allocator: Flexible, safe, and measurable memory allocation

This module provides the following:

  • Generic allocator interfaces that can be injected into routines that need dynamic memory. These include pw::allocator::Allocator, as well as the Layout type that is passed to it and the UniquePtr returned from it.

  • Concrete allocator implementations used to provide memory dynamically.

  • “Forwarding” allocators, as described by Forwarding allocator concept.

  • Additional allocator utility classes. These are typically used by allocator implementers.

  • Test utilities for testing allocator implementations. These are typically used by allocator implementers.

pw::allocator::Allocator#

class Allocator#

Abstract interface for memory allocation.

This is the most generic and fundamental interface provided by the module, representing any object capable of dynamic memory allocation. Other interfaces may inherit from a base generic Allocator and provide different allocator properties.

The interface makes no guarantees about its implementation. Consumers of the generic interface must not make any assumptions around allocator behavior, thread safety, or performance.

NOTE: This interface is in development and should not be considered stable.

Subclassed by pw::allocator::TrackingAllocatorImpl< AllMetrics >, pw::allocator::FallbackAllocator, pw::allocator::LibCAllocator, pw::allocator::NullAllocator, pw::allocator::SynchronizedAllocator< LockType >, pw::allocator::TrackingAllocatorImpl< MetricsType >, pw::allocator::internal::GenericBlockAllocator, pw::allocator::test::AllocatorForTest< kBufferSize, MetricsType >

Public Functions

inline bool HasCapability(Capability capability) const#

Returns whether a given capabilityis enabled for this allocator.

inline void *Allocate(Layout layout)#

Allocates a block of memory with the specified size and alignment.

Returns nullptr if the allocation cannot be made, or the layout has a size of 0.

Parameters:

layout[in] Describes the memory to be allocated.

template<typename T, int&... ExplicitGuard, typename ...Args>
inline T *New(Args&&... args)#

Constructs and object of type T from the given args

The return value is nullable, as allocating memory for the object may fail. Callers must check for this error before using the resulting pointer.

Parameters:

args...[in] Arguments passed to the object constructor.

template<typename T, int&... ExplicitGuard, typename ...Args>
inline UniquePtr<T> MakeUnique(Args&&... args)#

Constructs and object of type T from the given args, and wraps it in a UniquePtr

The returned value may contain null if allocating memory for the object fails. Callers must check for null before using the UniquePtr.

Parameters:

args...[in] Arguments passed to the object constructor.

inline void Deallocate(void *ptr)#

Releases a previously-allocated block of memory.

The given pointer must have been previously obtained from a call to either Allocate or Reallocate; otherwise the behavior is undefined.

Parameters:

ptr[in] Pointer to previously-allocated memory.

inline void Deallocate(void *ptr, Layout layout)#

Deprecated version of Deallocate that takes a Layout. Do not use this method. It will be removed.

template<typename T>
inline void Delete(T *ptr)#

Destroys the object at ptr and deallocates the associated memory.

The given pointer must have been previously obtained from a call to New using the same allocator; otherwise the behavior is undefined.

This functions is only callable with objects whose type is final. This limitation is unfortunately required due to the fact that it is not possible to inspect the size of the underlying memory allocation for virtual objects.

Parameters:

ptr[in] Pointer to previously-allocated object.

inline bool Resize(void *ptr, size_t new_size)#

Modifies the size of an previously-allocated block of memory without copying any data.

Returns true if its size was changed without copying data to a new allocation; otherwise returns false.

In particular, it always returns true if the old_layout.size() equals new_size, and always returns false if the given pointer is null, the old_layout.size() is 0, or the new_size is 0.

Parameters:
  • ptr[in] Pointer to previously-allocated memory.

  • new_size[in] Requested new size for the memory allocation.

inline bool Resize(void *ptr, Layout layout, size_t new_size)#

Deprecated version of Resize that takes a Layout. Do not use this method. It will be removed.

inline void *Reallocate(void *ptr, Layout new_layout)#

Modifies the size of a previously-allocated block of memory.

Returns pointer to the modified block of memory, or nullptr if the memory could not be modified.

The data stored by the memory being modified must be trivially copyable. If it is not, callers should themselves attempt to Resize, then Allocate, move the data, and Deallocate as needed.

If nullptr is returned, the block of memory is unchanged. In particular, if the new_layout has a size of 0, the given pointer will NOT be deallocated.

TODO(b/331290408): This error condition needs to be better communicated to module users, who may assume the pointer is freed.

Unlike Resize, providing a null pointer will return a new allocation.

If the request can be satisfied using Resize, the alignment parameter may be ignored.

Parameters:
  • ptr[in] Pointer to previously-allocated memory.

  • new_layout[in] Describes the memory to be allocated.

inline void *Reallocate(void *ptr, Layout old_layout, size_t new_size)#

Deprecated version of Reallocate that takes a Layout. Do not use this method. It will be removed.

inline StatusWithSize GetCapacity() const#

Returns the total amount of memory allocatable by this object.

This is an optional method. Some allocators may not have an easily defined defined capacity, e.g. the system allocator. If implemented, the returned capacity may be less than the memory originally given to an allocator, e.g. if the allocator must align the region of memory, its capacity may be reduced.

inline Result<Layout> GetLayout(const void *ptr) const#

Returns the layout used to allocate a given pointer.

NOTE: This method will eventually be deprecated. Use GetAllocatedLayout instead.

Return values:
  • OK – Returns the actual layout of allocated memory.

  • NOT_FOUND – The allocator does not recognize the pointer as one of its allocations.

  • UNIMPLEMENTEDAllocator cannot recover allocation details.

inline bool IsEqual(const Allocator &other) const#

Returns whether the given allocator is the same as this one.

This method is used instead of operator== in keeping with std::pmr::memory_resource::is_equal. There currently is no corresponding virtual DoIsEqual, as allocators that would require dynamic_cast to properly determine equality are not supported. This method will allow the interface to remain unchanged should a future need for such allocators arise.

Parameters:

other[in] Allocator to compare with this object.

Layout#

class Layout#

Describes the layout of a block of memory.

Layouts are passed to allocators, and consist of a (possibly padded) size and a power-of-two alignment no larger than the size. Layouts can be constructed for a type T using Layout::Of.

Example:

struct MyStruct {
  uint8_t field1[3];
  uint32_t field2[3];
};
constexpr Layout layout_for_struct = Layout::Of<MyStruct>();

Public Static Functions

template<typename T>
static inline constexpr Layout Of()#

Creates a Layout for the given type.

UniquePtr#

template<typename T>
class UniquePtr : public pw::allocator::internal::BaseUniquePtr#

An RAII pointer to a value of type T stored in memory provided by a Allocator.

This is analogous to std::unique_ptr, but includes a few differences in order to support Allocator and encourage safe usage. Most notably, UniquePtr<T> cannot be constructed from a T*.

Public Functions

inline constexpr UniquePtr()#

Creates an empty (nullptr) instance.

NOTE: Instances of this type are most commonly constructed using Allocator::MakeUnique.

inline constexpr UniquePtr(std::nullptr_t)#

Creates an empty (nullptr) instance.

NOTE: Instances of this type are most commonly constructed using Allocator::MakeUnique.

template<typename U>
inline UniquePtr(UniquePtr<U> &&other) noexcept#

Move-constructs a UniquePtr<T> from a UniquePtr<U>.

This allows not only pure move construction where T == U, but also converting construction where T is a base class of U, like UniquePtr<Base> base(allocator.MakeUnique<Child>());.

template<typename U>
inline UniquePtr &operator=(UniquePtr<U> &&other) noexcept#

Move-assigns a UniquePtr<T> from a UniquePtr<U>.

This operation destructs and deallocates any value currently stored in this.

This allows not only pure move assignment where T == U, but also converting assignment where T is a base class of U, like UniquePtr<Base> base = allocator.MakeUnique<Child>();.

inline UniquePtr &operator=(std::nullptr_t)#

Sets this UniquePtr to null, destructing and deallocating any currently-held value.

After this function returns, this UniquePtr will be in an “empty” (nullptr) state until a new value is assigned.

inline ~UniquePtr()#

Destructs and deallocates any currently-held value.

inline Allocator *allocator() const#

Returns a pointer to the allocator that produced this unique pointer.

inline T *Release()#

Releases a value from the UniquePtr without destructing or deallocating it.

After this call, the object will have an “empty” (nullptr) value.

inline void Reset()#

Destructs and deallocates any currently-held value.

After this function returns, this UniquePtr will be in an “empty” (nullptr) state until a new value is assigned.

explicit operator bool() const = delete#

operator bool is not provided in order to ensure that there is no confusion surrounding if (foo) vs. if (*foo).

nullptr checking should instead use if (foo == nullptr).

inline bool operator==(std::nullptr_t) const#

Returns whether this UniquePtr is in an “empty” (nullptr) state.

inline bool operator!=(std::nullptr_t) const#

Returns whether this UniquePtr is not in an “empty” (nullptr) state.

inline T *get()#

Returns the underlying (possibly null) pointer.

inline const T *get() const#

Returns the underlying (possibly null) pointer.

inline T *operator->()#

Permits accesses to members of T via my_unique_ptr->Member.

The behavior of this operation is undefined if this UniquePtr is in an “empty” (nullptr) state.

inline T &operator*()#

Returns a reference to any underlying value.

The behavior of this operation is undefined if this UniquePtr is in an “empty” (nullptr) state.

inline UniquePtr(PrivateConstructorType, T *value, Allocator *allocator)#

Private constructor that is public only for use with emplace and other in-place construction functions.

Constructs a UniquePtr from an already-allocated value.

NOTE: Instances of this type are most commonly constructed using Allocator::MakeUnique.

Capabilities#

This modules includes types for communicating about optional methods and behaviors. It is intended for allocator implementers and not for module consumers.

class Capabilities#

A collection of Capabilitys.

Concrete allocators should declare a constant set of capabilities, and pass it to the Allocator constructor.

class MyConcreteAllocator : public Allocator {
 public:
  static constexpr Capabilities kCapabilities = kCapability1 | kCapability2;

  MyConcreteAllocator() : Allocator(kCapabilities) {}
};

Forwarding allocators should pass the underlying allocator’s capabilities, potentially with modifications:

class MyForwardingAllocator : public Allocator {
 public:
  MyForwardingAllocator(Allocator& allocator)
    : Allocator(allocator.capabilities() | kCapability3),
      allocator_(allocator) {}
};

Allocator Implementations#

This module provides several concrete allocator implementations of the pw::allocator::Allocator interface:

BlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType, uint16_t kPoisonInterval, uint16_t kAlign>
class BlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::internal::GenericBlockAllocator#

A memory allocator that uses a list of blocks.

This class does not implement ChooseBlock and cannot be used directly. Instead, use one of its specializations.

NOTE!! Do NOT use memory returned from this allocator as the backing for another allocator. If this is done, the Query method may incorrectly think pointers returned by that allocator were created by this one, and report that this allocator can de/reallocate them.

Subclassed by pw::allocator::BestFitBlockAllocator< OffsetType, kPoisonInterval, kAlign >, pw::allocator::DualFirstFitBlockAllocator< OffsetType, kPoisonInterval, kAlign >, pw::allocator::FirstFitBlockAllocator< OffsetType, kPoisonInterval, kAlign >, pw::allocator::LastFitBlockAllocator< OffsetType, kPoisonInterval, kAlign >, pw::allocator::WorstFitBlockAllocator< OffsetType, kPoisonInterval, kAlign >

Public Functions

inline constexpr BlockAllocator()#

Constexpr constructor. Callers must explicitly call Init.

inline explicit BlockAllocator(ByteSpan region)#

Non-constexpr constructor that automatically calls Init.

Errors are fatal.

Parameters:

region[in] The memory region for this allocator.

Range blocks() const#

Returns a Range of blocks tracking the memory of this allocator.

Status Init(ByteSpan region)#

Sets the memory region to be used by this allocator.

This method will instantiate an initial block using the memory region.

Parameters:

region[in] The memory region for this allocator.

Return values:
  • OK – The allocator is initialized.

  • INVALID_ARGUMENT – The memory region is null.

  • RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED – The region is too small for BlockType.

  • OUT_OF_RANGE – The region too large for BlockType.

Status Init(BlockType *begin, BlockType *end = nullptr)#

Sets the blocks to be used by this allocator.

This method will use the sequence blocks as-is, which must be valid. If end is not provided, the sequence extends to a block marked “last”.

Parameters:

region[in] The memory region for this allocator.

Return values:
  • OK – The allocator is initialized.

  • INVALID_ARGUMENT – The block sequence is empty.

void Reset()#

Initializes the allocator with preconfigured blocks.

This method does not Resets the allocator to an uninitialized state.

At the time of the call, there MUST NOT be any outstanding allocated blocks from this allocator.

FirstFitBlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kPoisonInterval = 0, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType)>
class FirstFitBlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::internal::BlockAllocator<uintptr_t, 0, alignof(uintptr_t)>#

Block allocator that uses a “first-fit” allocation strategy.

In this strategy, the allocator handles an allocation request by starting at the beginning of the range of blocks and looking for the first one which can satisfy the request.

This strategy may result in slightly worse fragmentation than the corresponding “last-fit” strategy, since the alignment may result in unused fragments both before and after an allocated block.

LastFitBlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kPoisonInterval = 0, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType)>
class LastFitBlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::internal::BlockAllocator<uintptr_t, 0, alignof(uintptr_t)>#

Block allocator that uses a “last-fit” allocation strategy.

In this strategy, the allocator handles an allocation request by starting at the end of the range of blocks and looking for the last one which can satisfy the request.

This strategy may result in slightly better fragmentation than the corresponding “first-fit” strategy, since even with alignment it will result in at most one unused fragment before the allocated block.

BestFitBlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kPoisonInterval = 0, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType)>
class BestFitBlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::internal::BlockAllocator<uintptr_t, 0, alignof(uintptr_t)>#

Block allocator that uses a “best-fit” allocation strategy.

In this strategy, the allocator handles an allocation request by looking at all unused blocks and finding the smallest one which can satisfy the request.

This algorithm may make better use of available memory by wasting less on unused fragments, but may also lead to worse fragmentation as those fragments are more likely to be too small to be useful to other requests.

WorstFitBlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kPoisonInterval = 0, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType)>
class WorstFitBlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::internal::BlockAllocator<uintptr_t, 0, alignof(uintptr_t)>#

Block allocator that uses a “worst-fit” allocation strategy.

In this strategy, the allocator handles an allocation request by looking at all unused blocks and finding the biggest one which can satisfy the request.

This algorithm may lead to less fragmentation as any unused fragments are more likely to be large enough to be useful to other requests.

DualFirstFitBlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kPoisonInterval = 0, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType)>
class DualFirstFitBlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::internal::BlockAllocator<uintptr_t, 0, alignof(uintptr_t)>#

Block allocator that uses a “dual first-fit” allocation strategy split between large and small allocations.

In this strategy, the strategy includes a threshold value. Requests for more than this threshold are handled similarly to FirstFit, while requests for less than this threshold are handled similarly to LastFit.

This algorithm approaches the performance of FirstFit and LastFit while improving on those algorithms fragmentation.

Public Functions

inline void set_threshold(size_t threshold)#

Sets the threshold value for which requests are considered “large”.

LibCAllocator#

class LibCAllocator : public pw::allocator::Allocator#

Memory allocator that uses malloc and free.

TODO: b/301930507 - aligned_alloc is not portable. As a result, this allocator has a maximum alignment of std::align_max_t.

NullAllocator#

class NullAllocator : public pw::allocator::Allocator#

A memory allocator that always fails to allocate memory.

A null allocator may be useful as part of a larger framework if allocation should be disallowed under certain circumstances. For example, a function that returns different allocators based on an input parameter may return a null allocator when given an invalid or unsupported parameter value.

Forwarding Allocators#

This module provides several “forwarding” allocators, as described in Forwarding allocator concept.

FallbackAllocator#

class FallbackAllocator : public pw::allocator::Allocator#

This class simply dispatches between a primary and secondary allocator. Any attempt to allocate memory will first be handled by the primary allocator. If it cannot allocate memory, e.g. because it is out of memory, the secondary alloator will try to allocate memory instead.

Public Functions

inline FallbackAllocator(Allocator &primary, Allocator &secondary)#

Constructor.

Parameters:
  • primary[in] Allocator tried first. Must implement Query.

  • secondary[in] Allocator tried if primary fails a request.

SynchronizedAllocator#

template<typename LockType>
class SynchronizedAllocator : public pw::allocator::Allocator#

Wraps an Allocator with a lock to synchronize access.

Depending on the LockType, this object may be thread- and/or interrupt- safe. For example, SynchronizedAllocator<pw::sync::Mutex> is thread-safe, while SynchronizedAllocator<pw::sync::InterruptSpinLock> is thread- and interrupt-safe.

Template Parameters:

LockType – The type of the lock used to synchronize allocator access. Must be default-constructible.

TrackingAllocator#

template<typename MetricsType>
class TrackingAllocatorImpl : public pw::allocator::Allocator#

Wraps an Allocator and records details of its usage.

Metric collection is performed using the provided template parameter type. Callers can not instantiate this class directly, as it lacks a public constructor. Instead, callers should use derived classes which provide the template parameter type, such as TrackingAllocator which uses the default metrics implementation, or TrackingAllocatorForTest which always uses the real metrics implementation.

If the requested_bytes metric is enabled, then this allocator will add overhead to each allocation. It uses one of two layouts:

  • If the underlying allocator implements GetAllocated, this allocator will store the requested size of an allocation after that allocation’s usable space. For example, assume Layout{.size=256, .alignment=16}, sizeof(size_t) == 4, and that ‘U’ indicates “usable space”. An allocation might look like:

    ..1f0 | UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU ….. | … ..2e0 | UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU ..2f0 | 00 00 01 00 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. // size suffix

  • If the underlying allocator does NOT implement GetAllocated, this allocator will store a Layout of the requested bytes and alignment before the usable space. This is more expensive, as alignment bytes must be added to keep the usable space aligned. For example, with the same assumptions as beforea and ‘x’ indicating padding, an allocation might look like:

    ..1f0 | xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 10 ..2e0 | UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU ….. | … ..2f0 | UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU UU

If the requested_bytes metric is disabled, no additional overhead will be added.

Utility Classes#

In addition to providing allocator implementations themselves, this module includes some utility classes.

Block#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType), bool kCanPoison = false>
class Block#

Memory region with links to adjacent blocks.

The blocks do not encode their size directly. Instead, they encode offsets to the next and previous blocks using the type given by the OffsetType template parameter. The encoded offsets are simply the offsets divded by the minimum block alignment, kAlignment.

The kAlignment constant provided by the derived block is typically the minimum value of alignof(OffsetType). Since the addressable range of a block is given by std::numeric_limits<OffsetType>::max() * kAlignment, it may be advantageous to set a higher alignment if it allows using a smaller offset type, even if this wastes some bytes in order to align block headers.

Blocks will always be aligned to a kAlignment boundary. Block sizes will always be rounded up to a multiple of kAlignment.

If kCanPoison is set, allocators may call Poison to overwrite the contents of a block with a poison pattern. This pattern will subsequently be checked when allocating blocks, and can detect memory corruptions such as use-after-frees.

As an example, the diagram below represents two contiguous Block<uint32_t, true, 8>s. The indices indicate byte offsets:

Block 1:
+---------------------+------+--------------+
| Header              | Info | Usable space |
+----------+----------+------+--------------+
| Prev     | Next     |      |              |
| 0......3 | 4......7 | 8..9 | 10.......280 |
| 00000000 | 00000046 | 8008 |  <app data>  |
+----------+----------+------+--------------+
Block 2:
+---------------------+------+--------------+
| Header              | Info | Usable space |
+----------+----------+------+--------------+
| Prev     | Next     |      |              |
| 0......3 | 4......7 | 8..9 | 10......1056 |
| 00000046 | 00000106 | 6008 | f7f7....f7f7 |
+----------+----------+------+--------------+

The overall size of the block (e.g. 280 bytes) is given by its next offset multiplied by the alignment (e.g. 0x106 * 4). Also, the next offset of a block matches the previous offset of its next block. The first block in a list is denoted by having a previous offset of 0.

Template Parameters:
  • OffsetType – Unsigned integral type used to encode offsets. Larger types can address more memory, but consume greater overhead.

  • kCanPoison – Indicates whether to enable poisoning free blocks.

  • kAlign – Sets the overall alignment for blocks. Minimum is alignof(OffsetType) (the default). Larger values can address more memory, but consume greater overhead.

Public Functions

inline size_t OuterSize() const#
Returns:

The total size of the block in bytes, including the header.

inline size_t InnerSize() const#
Returns:

The number of usable bytes inside the block.

inline std::byte *UsableSpace()#
Returns:

A pointer to the usable space inside this block.

Status CanAllocFirst(size_t inner_size, size_t alignment) const#

Checks if an aligned block could be split from the start of the block.

This method will return the same status as AllocFirst without performing any modifications.

Return values:
  • OK – The split would complete successfully.

  • FAILED_PRECONDITION – This block is in use and cannot be split.

  • OUT_OF_RANGE – The requested size plus padding needed for alignment is greater than the current size.

Pre:

The block must not be in use.

Status CanAllocLast(size_t inner_size, size_t alignment) const#

Checks if an aligned block could be split from the end of the block.

This method will return the same status as AllocLast without performing any modifications.

Return values:
  • OK – The split completed successfully.

  • FAILED_PRECONDITION – This block is in use and cannot be split.

  • OUT_OF_RANGE – The requested size is greater than the current size.

  • RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED – The remaining space is too small to hold a new block.

Pre:

The block must not be in use.

Block *Next() const#

Fetches the block immediately after this one.

For performance, this always returns a block pointer, even if the returned pointer is invalid. The pointer is valid if and only if Last() is false.

Typically, after calling Init callers may save a pointer past the end of the list using Next(). This makes it easy to subsequently iterate over the list:

auto result = Block<>::Init(byte_span);
Block<>* begin = *result;
Block<>* end = begin->Next();
...
for (auto* block = begin; block != end; block = block->Next()) {
  // Do something which each block.
}

Block *Prev() const#
Returns:

The block immediately before this one, or a null pointer if this is the first block.

inline size_t Alignment() const#

Returns the current alignment of a block.

inline bool Used() const#

Indicates whether the block is in use.

Returns:

true if the block is in use or false if not.

inline bool Last() const#

Indicates whether this block is the last block or not (i.e. whether Next() points to a valid block or not). This is needed because Next() points to the end of this block, whether there is a valid block there or not.

Returns:

true is this is the last block or false if not.

inline void MarkUsed()#

Marks this block as in use.

inline void MarkFree()#

Marks this block as free.

inline void MarkLast()#

Marks this block as the last one in the chain.

inline void ClearLast()#

Clears the last bit from this block.

void Poison(bool should_poison = true)#

Poisons the block’s usable space.

This method does nothing if kCanPoison is false, or if the block is in use, or if should_poison is false. The decision to poison a block is deferred to the allocator to allow for more nuanced strategies than simply all or nothing. For example, an allocator may want to balance security and performance by only poisoning every n-th free block.

Parameters:

should_poison – Indicates tha block should be poisoned, if poisoning is enabled.

inline bool IsValid() const#

Checks if a block is valid.

Returns:

true if and only if the following conditions are met:

  • The block is aligned.

  • The prev/next fields match with the previous and next blocks.

  • The poisoned bytes are not damaged (if poisoning is enabled).

void CrashIfInvalid() const#

Crashes with an informtaional message if a block is invalid.

Does nothing if the block is valid.

Public Static Functions

static Result<Block*> Init(ByteSpan region)#

Creates the first block for a given memory region.

Return values:
  • OK – Returns a block representing the region.

  • INVALID_ARGUMENT – The region is null.

  • RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED – The region is too small for a block.

  • OUT_OF_RANGE – The region is too big to be addressed using OffsetType.

template<int&... DeducedTypesOnly, typename PtrType, bool is_const_ptr = std::is_const_v<std::remove_pointer_t<PtrType>>, typename BytesPtr = std::conditional_t<is_const_ptr, const std::byte*, std::byte*>, typename BlockPtr = std::conditional_t<is_const_ptr, const Block*, Block*>>
static inline BlockPtr FromUsableSpace(
PtrType usable_space,
)#

This is the inverse of UsableSpace().

Warning

This method does not do any checking; passing a random pointer will return a non-null pointer.

Returns:

A pointer to a Block, given a pointer to the start of the usable space inside the block.

static Status AllocFirst(Block *&block, size_t inner_size, size_t alignment)#

Splits an aligned block from the start of the block, and marks it as used.

If successful, block will be replaced by a block that has an inner size of at least inner_size, and whose starting address is aligned to an alignment boundary. If unsuccessful, block will be unmodified.

This method is static in order to consume and replace the given block pointer with a pointer to the new, smaller block. In total, up to two additional blocks may be created: one to pad the returned block to an alignment boundary and one for the trailing space.

Return values:
  • OK – The split completed successfully.

  • FAILED_PRECONDITION – This block is in use and cannot be split.

  • OUT_OF_RANGE – The requested size plus padding needed for alignment is greater than the current size.

Pre:

The block must not be in use.

static Status AllocLast(Block *&block, size_t inner_size, size_t alignment)#

Splits an aligned block from the end of the block, and marks it as used.

If successful, block will be replaced by a block that has an inner size of at least inner_size, and whose starting address is aligned to an alignment boundary. If unsuccessful, block will be unmodified.

This method is static in order to consume and replace the given block pointer with a pointer to the new, smaller block. An additional block may be created for the leading space.

Return values:
  • OK – The split completed successfully.

  • FAILED_PRECONDITION – This block is in use and cannot be split.

  • OUT_OF_RANGE – The requested size is greater than the current size.

  • RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED – The remaining space is too small to hold a new block.

Pre:

The block must not be in use.

static void Free(Block *&block)#

Marks the block as free and merges it with any free neighbors.

This method is static in order to consume and replace the given block pointer. If neither member is free, the returned pointer will point to the original block. Otherwise, it will point to the new, larger block created by merging adjacent free blocks together.

static Status Resize(Block *&block, size_t new_inner_size)#

Grows or shrinks the block.

If successful, block may be merged with the block after it in order to provide additional memory (when growing) or to merge released memory (when shrinking). If unsuccessful, block will be unmodified.

This method is static in order to consume and replace the given block pointer with a pointer to the new, smaller block.

Return values:
  • OK – The resize completed successfully.

  • FAILED_PRECONDITION – This block is not in use.

  • OUT_OF_RANGE – The requested size is greater than the available space.

Pre:

The block must be in use.

static Result<Block*> Split(Block *&block, size_t new_inner_size)#

Attempts to split this block.

If successful, the block will have an inner size of new_inner_size, rounded up to a kAlignment boundary. The remaining space will be returned as a new block.

This method may fail if the remaining space is too small to hold a new block. If this method fails for any reason, the original block is unmodified.

This method is static in order to consume and replace the given block pointer with a pointer to the new, smaller block.

Return values:
  • OK – The split completed successfully.

  • FAILED_PRECONDITION – This block is in use and cannot be split.

  • OUT_OF_RANGE – The requested size for this block is greater than the current inner_size.

  • RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED – The remaining space is too small to hold a new block.

Pre:

The block must not be in use.

static Status MergeNext(Block *&block)#

Merges this block with the one that comes after it.

This method is static in order to consume and replace the given block pointer with a pointer to the new, larger block.

Return values:
  • OK – The merge was successful.

  • OUT_OF_RANGE – The given block is the last block.

  • FAILED_PRECONDITION – One or more of the blocks is in use.

Pre:

The blocks must not be in use.

class Iterator#

Represents an iterator that moves forward through a list of blocks.

This class is not typically instantiated directly, but rather using a range-based for-loop using Block::Range.

class Range#

Represents a range of blocks that can be iterated over.

The typical usage of this class is in a range-based for-loop, e.g.

for (auto* block : Range(first, last)) { ... }

Public Functions

inline explicit Range(Block *begin)#

Constructs a range including begin and all valid following blocks.

inline Range(Block *begin_inclusive, Block *end_inclusive)#

Constructs a range of blocks from begin to end, inclusively.

class ReverseIterator#

Represents an iterator that moves forward through a list of blocks.

This class is not typically instantiated directly, but rather using a range-based for-loop using Block::ReverseRange.

class ReverseRange#

Represents a range of blocks that can be iterated over in the reverse direction.

The typical usage of this class is in a range-based for-loop, e.g.

for (auto* block : ReverseRange(last, first)) { ... }

Public Functions

inline explicit ReverseRange(Block *rbegin)#

Constructs a range including rbegin and all valid preceding blocks.

inline ReverseRange(Block *rbegin_inclusive, Block *rend_inclusive)#

Constructs a range of blocks from rbegin to rend, inclusively.

Tip

Avoid converting pointers to allocations into Block instances, even if you know your memory is coming from a BlockAllocator. Breaking the abstraction in this manner will limit your flexibility to change to a different allocator in the future.

Metrics#

template<typename MetricsType>
class Metrics#

Encapsulates the metrics struct for pw::allocator::TrackingAllocator.

This class uses the type traits from PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_DECLARE to conditionally include or exclude code to update metrics based on calls to the pw::allocator::Allocator API. This minimizes code size without adding additional conditions to be evaluated at runtime.

Template Parameters:

MetricsType – The struct defining which metrics are enabled.

Public Functions

void ModifyRequested(size_t increase, size_t decrease)#

Updates how much memory was requested and successfully allocated.

This will update the current, peak, and cumulative amounts of memory requests that were satisfied by an allocator.

Parameters:
  • increase – How much memory was requested to be allocated.

  • decrease – How much memory was requested to be freed.

void ModifyAllocated(size_t increase, size_t decrease)#

Updates how much memory is allocated.

This will update the current, peak, and cumulative amounts of memory that has been actually allocated or freed. This method acts as if it frees memory before allocating. If a routine suchas Reallocate allocates before freeing, the update should be separated into two calls, e.g.

ModifyAllocated(increase, 0);
ModifyAllocated(0, decrease);
Parameters:
  • increase – How much memory was allocated.

  • decrease – How much memory was freed.

void IncrementAllocations()#

Records that a call to Allocate was made.

void IncrementDeallocations()#

Records that a call to Deallocate was made.

void IncrementResizes()#

Records that a call to Resize was made.

void IncrementReallocations()#

Records that a call to Reallocate was made.

void RecordFailure(size_t requested)#

Records that a call to Allocate, Resize, or Reallocate failed.

This may indicated that memory becoming exhausted and/or highly fragmented.

Parameters:

requested – How much memory was requested in the failed call.

This class is templated on a MetricsType struct. See Allocator metrics for additional details on how the struct, this class, and TrackingAllocator interact.

This modules also includes two concrete metrics types that can be used as the template parameter of this class:

  • AllMetrics, which enables all metrics.

  • NoMetrics, which disables all metrics.

Additionally, module consumers can define their own metrics structs using the following macros:

PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_DECLARE(metric_name)#

Declares the names of metrics used by pw::allocator::Metrics.

Only the names of declared metrics may be passed to PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_ENABLE as part of a metrics struct definition.

This macro generates trait types that are used by Metrics to conditionally include metric-related code.

Note: if enabling `peak_allocated_bytes or cumulative_allocated_bytes, allocated_bytes should also be enabled.

PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_ENABLE(metric_name)#

Enables a metric for in a metrics struct.

The pw::allocator::TrackingAllocator template takes a struct that enables zero or more of the metrics enumerated by PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_DECLARE`.

This struct may be one of AllMetrics or NoMetrics, or may be a custom struct that selects a subset of metrics.

Note that this must be fully-qualified since the metric struct may be defined in any namespace.

Example:

struct MyMetrics {
  PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_ENABLE(allocated_bytes);
  PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_ENABLE(peak_allocated_bytes);
  PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_ENABLE(num_failures);
};

SizeReporter#

This modules includes a utility class for generating size reports. It is intended for allocator implementers and not for module consumers.

class SizeReporter#

Utility class for generating allocator size reports.

The pw_bloat module can be used to compare the size of binaries. This class facilitates creating binaries with and without a given allocator type.

To create a size report:

  1. Make a copy of //pw_allocator/size_report/base.cc

  2. Instantiate your allocator and pass it to MeasureAllocator.

  3. Create build target(s) for your binary, and a pw_size_diff target that compares it to “$dir_pw_allocator/size_report:base”.

Public Functions

inline void Measure(Allocator &allocator)#

Exercises an allocator as part of a size report.

Parameters:

allocator[in] The allocator to exercise. Will be ignored if not derived from Allocator.

struct Bar#

Nested type used for exercising an allocator.

struct Baz#

Nested type used for exercising an allocator.

struct Foo#

Nested type used for exercising an allocator.

Buffer management#

template<typename T, size_t kBufferSize, size_t kAlignment = 1>
class WithBuffer#

Associates a default-constructed type with a memory buffer.

Although the type is arbitrary, the intended purpose of of this class is to provide allocators with memory to use, e.g. when testing.

This class uses composition instead of inheritance in order to allow the wrapped type’s destructor to reference the memory without risk of a use-after-free. As a result, the specific methods of the wrapped type are not directly accesible. Instead, they can be accessed using the * and -> operators, e.g.

WithBuffer<MyAllocator, 256> allocator;
allocator->MethodSpecificToMyAllocator();

Note that this class does NOT initialize the allocator, since initialization is not specified as part of the Allocator interface and may vary from allocator to allocator. As a result, typical usage includes deriving a class that initializes the wrapped allocator with the buffer in a constructor. See AllocatorForTest for an example.

Template Parameters:
  • T – The wrapped object.

  • kBufferSize – The size of the backing memory, in bytes.

  • kAlignment – Buffer memory will be aligned to this alignment boundary.

The following utility functions are available to allocator implementers. They are not intended to be used by module consumers.

Result<ByteSpan> pw::allocator::GetAlignedSubspan(ByteSpan bytes, size_t alignment)#

Returns the largest aligned subspan of a given byte span.

Return values:
  • OK – Returns the aligned subspan.

  • RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED – The given span does not contain an alignment boundary.

bool pw::allocator::IsWithin(const void *ptr, size_t size, ConstByteSpan outer)#

Returns whether one region is completely contained within another.

Parameters:
  • ptr[in] Points to the start of the subregion.

  • layout[in] Describes the subregion.

  • outer[in] The memory that may contain the subregion.

Test support#

This modules includes test utilities for allocator implementers. These facilitate writing unit tests and fuzz tests for both concrete and forwarding allocator implementations. They are not intended to be used by module consumers.

AllocatorForTest#

template<size_t kBufferSize, typename MetricsType = AllMetrics>
class AllocatorForTest : public pw::allocator::Allocator#

An AllocatorForTest that is automatically initialized on construction.

Public Functions

inline void ResetParameters()#

Resets the recorded parameters to an initial state.

inline void Exhaust()#

Allocates all the memory from this object.

AllocatorTestHarness#

template<size_t kMaxConcurrentAllocations>
class AllocatorTestHarness : public pw::allocator::test::AllocatorTestHarnessGeneric#

Associates an Allocator with a vector to store allocated pointers.

This class differes from its base class only in that it uses its template parameter to explicitly size the vector used to store allocated pointers.

This class does NOT implement WithAllocationsGeneric::Init. It must be extended further with a method that provides an initialized allocator.

For example, one create a fuzzer for MyAllocator that verifies it never crashes by adding the following class, function, and macro:

constexpr size_t kMaxRequests = 256;
constexpr size_t kMaxAllocations = 128;
constexpr size_t kMaxSize = 2048;

class MyAllocatorFuzzer : public AllocatorTestHarness<kMaxAllocations> {
 private:
  Allocator* Init() override { return &allocator_; }
  MyAllocator allocator_;
};

void MyAllocatorNeverCrashes(const Vector<AllocatorRequest>& requests) {
  static MyAllocatorFuzzer fuzzer;
  fuzzer.HandleRequests(requests);
}

FUZZ_TEST(MyAllocator, MyAllocatorNeverCrashes)
  .WithDomains(ArbitraryAllocatorRequests<kMaxRequests, kMaxSize>());

FuzzTest support#

fuzzer::Domain<AllocatorRequest> pw::allocator::test::ArbitraryAllocatorRequest(size_t max_size)#

Returns a FuzzTest domain for producing arbitrary allocator requests.

This method integrates with FuzzTest to use code coverage to produce guided mutations.

See https://github.com/google/fuzztest/blob/main/doc/domains-reference.md

Parameters:

max_size – Size of the largest allocation that can be requested.

template<size_t kMaxRequests, size_t kMaxSize>
auto pw::allocator::test::ArbitraryAllocatorRequests()#

Returns a FuzzTest domain for producing sequences of arbitrary allocator requests.

This method can be used to drive an AllocatorTestHarness as part of a fuzz test.

See https://github.com/google/fuzztest/blob/main/doc/domains-reference.md

Parameters:

max_size – Size of the largest allocation that can be requested.

template<size_t kIndex, typename ...Args>
AllocatorRequest pw::allocator::test::MakeAllocatorRequest(Args... args)#

Builds an AllocatorRequest from an index and values.

Unfortunately, the reproducer emitted by FuzzTest for vectors of AllocatorRequests cannot simply be copied and pasted. To create a reproducer, create a pw::Vector of the appropriate size, and populate it using this method with the correct index.

For example, consider the following sample output:

The test fails with input:
argument 0: {(index=0, value={0, 1}), (index=0, value={1209, 8}),
(index=2, value={9223372036854775807, 2048})}

=================================================================
=== Reproducer test

TEST(MyAllocatorFuzzTest, NeverCrashesU16Regression) {
  NeverCrashes(
    {{0, 1}, {1209, 8}, {9223372036854775807, 2048},
  );
}

A valid reproducer might be:

    TEST(MyAllocatorFuzzTest, NeverCrashesU16Regression) {
      Vector<test::AllocatorRequest, 3> input({
        test::MakeAllocatorRequest<0>(0u, 1u),
        test::MakeAllocatorRequest<0>(1209u, 8u),
        test::MakeAllocatorRequest<2>(9223372036854775807u, 2048u),
      });
      NeverCrashes(input);
// }