API reference#

pw_allocator: Flexible, safe, and measurable memory allocation

This module provides the following:

  • Generic allocator interfaces that can be injected into routines that need dynamic memory. These include Allocator, as well as the Layout type that is passed to it and the UniquePtr returned from it.

  • Concrete allocator implementations used to provide memory dynamically.

  • “Forwarding” allocators, as described by Forwarding allocator concept.

  • Additional allocator utility classes. These are typically used by allocator implementers.

  • Test utilities for testing allocator implementations. These are typically used by allocator implementers.

Core interfaces#

This module defines several types as part of a generic interface for memory users.

Layout#

A request for memory includes a requested size and alignment as a Layout:

class Layout#

Describes the layout of a block of memory.

Layouts are passed to allocators, and consist of a (possibly padded) size and a power-of-two alignment no larger than the size. Layouts can be constructed for a type T using Layout::Of.

Example:

struct MyStruct {
  uint8_t field1[3];
  uint32_t field2[3];
};
constexpr Layout layout_for_struct = Layout::Of<MyStruct>();

Public Static Functions

template<typename T>
static inline constexpr Layout Of()#

Creates a Layout for the given type.

static inline constexpr Layout Unwrap(const Result<Layout> &result)#

If the result is okay, returns its contained layout; otherwise, returns a default layout.

Allocator#

Allocator is the most commonly used interface. It can be used to request memory of different layouts:

class Allocator : public pw::Deallocator#

Abstract interface for variable-layout memory allocation.

The interface makes no guarantees about its implementation. Consumers of the generic interface must not make any assumptions around allocator behavior, thread safety, or performance.

Subclassed by pw::allocator::TrackingAllocator< internal::AllMetrics >, pw::allocator::test::AllocatorForTest< 1024 >, pw::allocator::BuddyAllocator< kMinChunkSize, kNumBuckets >, pw::allocator::BumpAllocator, pw::allocator::FallbackAllocator, pw::allocator::LibCAllocator, pw::allocator::NullAllocator, pw::allocator::SynchronizedAllocator< LockType >, pw::allocator::TrackingAllocator< MetricsType >, pw::allocator::internal::GenericBlockAllocator, pw::allocator::test::AllocatorForTest< kBufferSize, MetricsType >

Public Functions

inline void *Allocate(Layout layout)#

Allocates a block of memory with the specified size and alignment.

Returns nullptr if the allocation cannot be made, or the layout has a size of 0.

Parameters:

layout[in] Describes the memory to be allocated.

template<typename T, int&... ExplicitGuard, typename ...Args>
inline T *New(Args&&... args)#

Constructs and object of type T from the given args

The return value is nullable, as allocating memory for the object may fail. Callers must check for this error before using the resulting pointer.

Parameters:

args...[in] Arguments passed to the object constructor.

template<typename T, int&... ExplicitGuard, typename ...Args>
inline UniquePtr<T> MakeUnique(Args&&... args)#

Constructs and object of type T from the given args, and wraps it in a UniquePtr

The returned value may contain null if allocating memory for the object fails. Callers must check for null before using the UniquePtr.

Parameters:

args...[in] Arguments passed to the object constructor.

inline bool Resize(void *ptr, size_t new_size)#

Modifies the size of an previously-allocated block of memory without copying any data.

Returns true if its size was changed without copying data to a new allocation; otherwise returns false.

In particular, it always returns true if the old_layout.size() equals new_size, and always returns false if the given pointer is null, the old_layout.size() is 0, or the new_size is 0.

Parameters:
  • ptr[in] Pointer to previously-allocated memory.

  • new_size[in] Requested new size for the memory allocation.

inline bool Resize(void *ptr, Layout layout, size_t new_size)#

Deprecated version of Resize that takes a Layout. Do not use this method. It will be removed. TODO(b/326509341): Remove when downstream consumers migrate.

inline void *Reallocate(void *ptr, Layout new_layout)#

Modifies the size of a previously-allocated block of memory.

Returns pointer to the modified block of memory, or nullptr if the memory could not be modified.

The data stored by the memory being modified must be trivially copyable. If it is not, callers should themselves attempt to Resize, then Allocate, move the data, and Deallocate as needed.

If nullptr is returned, the block of memory is unchanged. In particular, if the new_layout has a size of 0, the given pointer will NOT be deallocated.

TODO(b/331290408): This error condition needs to be better communicated to module users, who may assume the pointer is freed.

Unlike Resize, providing a null pointer will return a new allocation.

If the request can be satisfied using Resize, the alignment parameter may be ignored.

Parameters:
  • ptr[in] Pointer to previously-allocated memory.

  • new_layout[in] Describes the memory to be allocated.

inline void *Reallocate(void *ptr, Layout old_layout, size_t new_size)#

Deprecated version of Reallocate that takes a Layout. Do not use this method. It will be removed. TODO(b/326509341): Remove when downstream consumers migrate.

inline allocator::AsPmrAllocator as_pmr()#

Returns an std::pmr::polymorphic_allocator that wraps this object.

The returned object can be used with the PMR versions of standard library containers, e.g. std::pmr::vector, std::pmr::string, etc.

See also Use standard library containers

Pool#

Pool differs from Allocator in that it can be used to request memory of a single, fixed layout:

class Pool : public pw::Deallocator#

Abstract interface for fixed-layout memory allocation.

The interface makes no guarantees about its implementation. Consumers of the generic interface must not make any assumptions around allocator behavior, thread safety, or performance.

Subclassed by pw::allocator::AllocatorAsPool, pw::allocator::ChunkPool

Public Functions

inline void *Allocate()#

Returns a chunk of memory with this object’s fixed layout.

Like pw::allocator::Allocate, returns null if memory is exhausted.

Return values:

The – allocated memory.

Deallocator#

Both Allocator and Pool derive from and extend Deallocator. This type is intended for allocator implementers and not for module consumers.

class Deallocator#

Abstract interface for releasing memory.

Subclassed by pw::Allocator, pw::allocator::Pool

Public Functions

inline bool HasCapability(Capability capability) const#

Returns whether a given capabilityis enabled for this object.

inline void Deallocate(void *ptr)#

Releases a previously-allocated block of memory.

The given pointer must have been previously provided by this memory resource; otherwise the behavior is undefined.

Parameters:

ptr[in] Pointer to previously-allocated memory.

inline void Deallocate(void *ptr, Layout layout)#

Deprecated version of Deallocate that takes a Layout. Do not use this method. It will be removed. TODO(b/326509341): Remove when downstream consumers migrate.

template<typename T>
inline void Delete(T *ptr)#

Destroys the object at ptr and deallocates the associated memory.

The given pointer must have been previously obtained from a call to New using the same object; otherwise the behavior is undefined.

Parameters:

ptr[in] Pointer to previously-allocated object.

inline StatusWithSize GetCapacity() const#

Returns the total amount of memory provided by this object.

This is an optional method. Some memory providers may not have an easily defined capacity, e.g. the system allocator. If implemented, the returned capacity may be less than the memory originally given to an allocator, e.g. if the allocator must align the region of memory, its capacity may be reduced.

inline bool IsEqual(const Deallocator &other) const#

Returns whether the given object is the same as this one.

This method is used instead of operator== in keeping with std::pmr::memory_resource::is_equal. There currently is no corresponding virtual DoIsEqual, as objects that would require dynamic_cast to properly determine equality are not supported. This method will allow the interface to remain unchanged should a future need for such objects arise.

Parameters:

other[in] Object to compare with this object.

Capabilities#

Types deriving from MemoryResource can communicate about their optional methods and behaviors using Capabilities. This type is intended for allocator implementers and not for module consumers.

class Capabilities#

A collection of Capabilitys.

Concrete allocators should declare a constant set of capabilities, and pass it to the Allocator constructor.

class MyConcreteAllocator : public Allocator {
 public:
  static constexpr Capabilities kCapabilities = kCapability1 | kCapability2;

  MyConcreteAllocator() : Allocator(kCapabilities) {}
};

Forwarding allocators should pass the underlying allocator’s capabilities, potentially with modifications:

class MyForwardingAllocator : public Allocator {
 public:
  MyForwardingAllocator(Allocator& allocator)
    : Allocator(allocator.capabilities() | kCapability3),
      allocator_(allocator) {}
};

UniquePtr#

The UniquePtr smart pointer type can be created by any type deriving from MemoryResource.

template<typename T>
class UniquePtr : public pw::allocator::internal::BaseUniquePtr#

An RAII pointer to a value of type T stored in memory provided by a Deallocator.

This is analogous to std::unique_ptr, but includes a few differences in order to support Deallocator and encourage safe usage. Most notably, UniquePtr<T> cannot be constructed from a T*.

Public Functions

inline constexpr UniquePtr()#

Creates an empty (nullptr) instance.

NOTE: Instances of this type are most commonly constructed using Deallocator::MakeUnique.

inline constexpr UniquePtr(std::nullptr_t)#

Creates an empty (nullptr) instance.

NOTE: Instances of this type are most commonly constructed using Deallocator::MakeUnique.

template<typename U>
inline UniquePtr(UniquePtr<U> &&other) noexcept#

Move-constructs a UniquePtr<T> from a UniquePtr<U>.

This allows not only pure move construction where T == U, but also converting construction where T is a base class of U, like UniquePtr<Base> base(deallocator.MakeUnique<Child>());.

template<typename U>
inline UniquePtr &operator=(UniquePtr<U> &&other) noexcept#

Move-assigns a UniquePtr<T> from a UniquePtr<U>.

This operation destructs and deallocates any value currently stored in this.

This allows not only pure move assignment where T == U, but also converting assignment where T is a base class of U, like UniquePtr<Base> base = deallocator.MakeUnique<Child>();.

inline UniquePtr &operator=(std::nullptr_t)#

Sets this UniquePtr to null, destructing and deallocating any currently-held value.

After this function returns, this UniquePtr will be in an “empty” (nullptr) state until a new value is assigned.

inline ~UniquePtr()#

Destructs and deallocates any currently-held value.

inline Deallocator *deallocator() const#

Returns a pointer to the object that can destroy the value.

inline T *Release()#

Releases a value from the UniquePtr without destructing or deallocating it.

After this call, the object will have an “empty” (nullptr) value.

inline void Reset()#

Destructs and deallocates any currently-held value.

After this function returns, this UniquePtr will be in an “empty” (nullptr) state until a new value is assigned.

explicit operator bool() const = delete#

operator bool is not provided in order to ensure that there is no confusion surrounding if (foo) vs. if (*foo).

nullptr checking should instead use if (foo == nullptr).

inline bool operator==(std::nullptr_t) const#

Returns whether this UniquePtr is in an “empty” (nullptr) state.

inline bool operator!=(std::nullptr_t) const#

Returns whether this UniquePtr is not in an “empty” (nullptr) state.

inline T *get()#

Returns the underlying (possibly null) pointer.

inline const T *get() const#

Returns the underlying (possibly null) pointer.

inline T *operator->()#

Permits accesses to members of T via my_unique_ptr->Member.

The behavior of this operation is undefined if this UniquePtr is in an “empty” (nullptr) state.

inline T &operator*()#

Returns a reference to any underlying value.

The behavior of this operation is undefined if this UniquePtr is in an “empty” (nullptr) state.

inline UniquePtr(PrivateConstructorType, T *value, Deallocator *deallocator)#

Private constructor that is public only for use with emplace and other in-place construction functions.

Constructs a UniquePtr from an already-allocated value.

NOTE: Instances of this type are most commonly constructed using Deallocator::MakeUnique.

Friends

friend class Deallocator

Allocator implementations#

This module provides several concrete allocator implementations of the Allocator interface:

BlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType, uint16_t kPoisonInterval, uint16_t kAlign>
class BlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::internal::GenericBlockAllocator#

A memory allocator that uses a list of blocks.

This class does not implement ChooseBlock and cannot be used directly. Instead, use one of its specializations.

NOTE!! Do NOT use memory returned from this allocator as the backing for another allocator. If this is done, the Query method may incorrectly think pointers returned by that allocator were created by this one, and report that this allocator can de/reallocate them.

Subclassed by pw::allocator::BestFitBlockAllocator< OffsetType, kPoisonInterval, kAlign >, pw::allocator::BucketBlockAllocator< OffsetType, kMinBucketChunkSize, kNumBuckets, kAlign >, pw::allocator::DualFirstFitBlockAllocator< OffsetType, kPoisonInterval, kAlign >, pw::allocator::FirstFitBlockAllocator< OffsetType, kPoisonInterval, kAlign >, pw::allocator::LastFitBlockAllocator< OffsetType, kPoisonInterval, kAlign >, pw::allocator::WorstFitBlockAllocator< OffsetType, kPoisonInterval, kAlign >

Public Functions

inline constexpr BlockAllocator()#

Constexpr constructor. Callers must explicitly call Init.

inline explicit BlockAllocator(ByteSpan region)#

Non-constexpr constructor that automatically calls Init.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit an aligned block with overhead. It MUST NOT be larger than what is addressable by OffsetType.

Range blocks() const#

Returns a Range of blocks tracking the memory of this allocator.

void Init(ByteSpan region)#

Sets the memory region to be used by this allocator.

This method will instantiate an initial block using the memory region.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit an aligned block with overhead. It MUST NOT be larger than what is addressable by OffsetType.

inline void Init(BlockType *begin)#

Sets the blocks to be used by this allocator.

This method will use the sequence blocks as-is, which must be valid. The sequence extends to a block marked “last”.

Parameters:

begin[in] The first block for this allocator.

virtual void Init(BlockType *begin, BlockType *end)#

Sets the blocks to be used by this allocator.

This method will use the sequence blocks as-is, which must be valid.

Parameters:
  • begin[in] The first block for this allocator.

  • end[in] The last block for this allocator. May be null, in which case the sequence ends with the first block marked “last”.

Fragmentation MeasureFragmentation() const#

Returns fragmentation information for the block allocator’s memory region.

void Reset()#

Resets the allocator to an uninitialized state.

At the time of the call, there MUST NOT be any outstanding allocated blocks from this allocator.

FirstFitBlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kPoisonInterval = 0, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType)>
class FirstFitBlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::BlockAllocator<uintptr_t, 0, alignof(uintptr_t)>#

Block allocator that uses a “first-fit” allocation strategy.

In this strategy, the allocator handles an allocation request by starting at the beginning of the range of blocks and looking for the first one which can satisfy the request.

This strategy may result in slightly worse fragmentation than the corresponding “last-fit” strategy, since the alignment may result in unused fragments both before and after an allocated block.

Public Functions

inline constexpr FirstFitBlockAllocator()#

Constexpr constructor. Callers must explicitly call Init.

inline explicit FirstFitBlockAllocator(ByteSpan region)#

Non-constexpr constructor that automatically calls Init.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit an aligned block with overhead. It MUST NOT be larger than what is addressable by OffsetType.

LastFitBlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kPoisonInterval = 0, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType)>
class LastFitBlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::BlockAllocator<uintptr_t, 0, alignof(uintptr_t)>#

Block allocator that uses a “last-fit” allocation strategy.

In this strategy, the allocator handles an allocation request by starting at the end of the range of blocks and looking for the last one which can satisfy the request.

This strategy may result in slightly better fragmentation than the corresponding “first-fit” strategy, since even with alignment it will result in at most one unused fragment before the allocated block.

Public Functions

inline constexpr LastFitBlockAllocator()#

Constexpr constructor. Callers must explicitly call Init.

inline explicit LastFitBlockAllocator(ByteSpan region)#

Non-constexpr constructor that automatically calls Init.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit an aligned block with overhead. It MUST NOT be larger than what is addressable by OffsetType.

BestFitBlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kPoisonInterval = 0, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType)>
class BestFitBlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::BlockAllocator<uintptr_t, 0, alignof(uintptr_t)>#

Block allocator that uses a “best-fit” allocation strategy.

In this strategy, the allocator handles an allocation request by looking at all unused blocks and finding the smallest one which can satisfy the request.

This algorithm may make better use of available memory by wasting less on unused fragments, but may also lead to worse fragmentation as those fragments are more likely to be too small to be useful to other requests.

Public Functions

inline constexpr BestFitBlockAllocator()#

Constexpr constructor. Callers must explicitly call Init.

inline explicit BestFitBlockAllocator(ByteSpan region)#

Non-constexpr constructor that automatically calls Init.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit an aligned block with overhead. It MUST NOT be larger than what is addressable by OffsetType.

WorstFitBlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kPoisonInterval = 0, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType)>
class WorstFitBlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::BlockAllocator<uintptr_t, 0, alignof(uintptr_t)>#

Block allocator that uses a “worst-fit” allocation strategy.

In this strategy, the allocator handles an allocation request by looking at all unused blocks and finding the biggest one which can satisfy the request.

This algorithm may lead to less fragmentation as any unused fragments are more likely to be large enough to be useful to other requests.

Public Functions

inline constexpr WorstFitBlockAllocator()#

Constexpr constructor. Callers must explicitly call Init.

inline explicit WorstFitBlockAllocator(ByteSpan region)#

Non-constexpr constructor that automatically calls Init.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit an aligned block with overhead. It MUST NOT be larger than what is addressable by OffsetType.

DualFirstFitBlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kPoisonInterval = 0, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType)>
class DualFirstFitBlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::BlockAllocator<uintptr_t, 0, alignof(uintptr_t)>#

Block allocator that uses a “dual first-fit” allocation strategy split between large and small allocations.

In this strategy, the strategy includes a threshold value. Requests for more than this threshold are handled similarly to FirstFit, while requests for less than this threshold are handled similarly to LastFit.

This algorithm approaches the performance of FirstFit and LastFit while improving on those algorithms fragmentation.

Public Functions

inline constexpr DualFirstFitBlockAllocator()#

Constexpr constructor. Callers must explicitly call Init.

inline DualFirstFitBlockAllocator(ByteSpan region, size_t threshold)#

Non-constexpr constructor that automatically calls Init.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit an aligned block with overhead. It MUST NOT be larger than what is addressable by OffsetType.

inline void set_threshold(size_t threshold)#

Sets the threshold value for which requests are considered “large”.

BucketBlockAllocator#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kMinBucketChunkSize = 32, size_t kNumBuckets = 5, size_t kAlign = std::max(alignof(OffsetType), alignof(std::byte*))>
class BucketBlockAllocator : public pw::allocator::BlockAllocator<uintptr_t, 0, std::max(std::max(alignof(uintptr_t), alignof(std::byte*)), alignof(std::byte*))>#

Block allocator that uses sized buckets of free blocks..

In this strategy, the allocator handles an allocation request by starting with the bucket with the smallest size that is larger than the requested size. It tries to allocate using the blocks in that block, if any, before trying the bucket with the next largest size.

On deallocation, blocks are placed in the bucket of the smallest size that is larger than usable space of the block being freed.

The last bucket always has an unbounded size.

As an example, assume that the allocator is configured with a minimum chunk size of 64 and 5 buckets. The internal state may look like the following:

bucket[0] (64B) --> chunk[12B] --> chunk[42B] --> chunk[64B] --> NULL
bucket[1] (128B) --> chunk[65B] --> chunk[72B] --> NULL
bucket[2] (256B) --> NULL
bucket[3] (512B) --> chunk[312B] --> chunk[512B] --> chunk[416B] --> NULL
bucket[4] (implicit) --> chunk[1024B] --> chunk[513B] --> NULL

Note that since this allocator stores information in free chunks, it does not currently support poisoning.

Public Functions

inline constexpr BucketBlockAllocator()#

Constexpr constructor. Callers must explicitly call Init.

inline explicit BucketBlockAllocator(ByteSpan region)#

Non-constexpr constructor that automatically calls Init.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit an aligned block with overhead. It MUST NOT be larger than what is addressable by OffsetType.

inline void Init(ByteSpan region)#

Sets the memory region to be used by this allocator.

This method will instantiate an initial block using the memory region.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit an aligned block with overhead. It MUST NOT be larger than what is addressable by OffsetType.

inline void Init(BlockType *begin)#

Sets the memory region to be used by this allocator.

This method will instantiate an initial block using the memory region.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit an aligned block with overhead. It MUST NOT be larger than what is addressable by OffsetType.

inline virtual void Init(BlockType *begin, BlockType *end) override#

Sets the memory region to be used by this allocator.

This method will instantiate an initial block using the memory region.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit an aligned block with overhead. It MUST NOT be larger than what is addressable by OffsetType.

BuddyAllocator#

template<size_t kMinChunkSize, size_t kNumBuckets>
class BuddyAllocator : public pw::Allocator#

Allocator that uses the buddy memory allocation algorithm.

This allocator allocates chunks of memory whose sizes are powers of two. This allows the allocator to satisfy requests to acquire and release memory very quickly, at the possible cost of higher internal fragmentation. In particular:

  • The maximum alignment for this allocator is kMinChunkSize.

  • The minimum size of an allocation is kMinChunkSize. Less may be requested, but it will be satisfied by a minimal chunk.

  • The maximum size of an allocation is kMinChunkSize << (kNumBuckets - 1).

Use this allocator if you know the needed sizes are close to but less than chunk sizes and you need high allocator performance.

Template Parameters:
  • kMinChunkSize – Size of the smallest allocatable chunk. Must be a a power of two. All allocations will use at least this much memory.

  • kNumBuckets – Number of buckets. Must be at least 1. Each additional bucket allows combining chunks into larger chunks.

Public Functions

inline BuddyAllocator()#

Constructs an allocator. Callers must call Init.

inline BuddyAllocator(ByteSpan region)#

Constructs an allocator, and initializes it with the given memory region.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit a least one minimally-size chunk aligned to the size of the chunk.

inline void Init(ByteSpan region)#

Sets the memory region used by the allocator.

Parameters:

region[in] Region of memory to use when satisfying allocation requests. The region MUST be large enough to fit a least one minimally-size chunk aligned to the size of the chunk.

BumpAllocator#

class BumpAllocator : public pw::Allocator#

Allocator that does not automatically delete.

A “bump” or “arena” allocator provides memory by simply incrementing a pointer to a memory region in order to “allocate” memory for requests, and doing nothing on deallocation. All memory is freed only when the allocator itself is destroyed. As a result, this allocator is extremely fast.

Bump allocators are useful when short-lived to allocate objects from small buffers with almost zero overhead. Since memory is not deallocated, a bump allocator with a longer lifespan than any of its allocations will end up holding unusable memory. An example of a good use case might be decoding RPC messages that may require a variable amount of space only for as long as it takes to decode a single message.

On destruction, the destructors for any objects allocated using New or MakeUnique are NOT called. To have these destructors invoked, you can allocate “owned” objects using NewOwned and MakeUniqueOwned. This adds a small amount of overhead to the allocation.

Public Functions

inline constexpr BumpAllocator()#

Constructs a BumpAllocator without initializing it.

inline explicit BumpAllocator(ByteSpan region)#

Constructs a BumpAllocator and initializes it.

void Init(ByteSpan region)#

Sets the memory region to be used by the allocator.

template<typename T, int&... ExplicitGuard, typename ...Args>
inline T *NewOwned(Args&&... args)#

Constructs an “owned” object of type T from the given args

Owned objects will have their destructors invoked when the allocator goes out of scope.

The return value is nullable, as allocating memory for the object may fail. Callers must check for this error before using the resulting pointer.

Parameters:

args...[in] Arguments passed to the object constructor.

template<typename T, int&... ExplicitGuard, typename ...Args>
inline UniquePtr<T> MakeUniqueOwned(Args&&... args)#

Constructs and object of type T from the given args, and wraps it in a UniquePtr

Owned objects will have their destructors invoked when the allocator goes out of scope.

The returned value may contain null if allocating memory for the object fails. Callers must check for null before using the UniquePtr.

Parameters:

args...[in] Arguments passed to the object constructor.

ChunkPool#

class ChunkPool : public pw::allocator::Pool#

Implementation of Pool that uses a list of free chunks.

The first sizeof(void*) bytes of each free chunk is used to store a pointer to the next free chunk, or null for the last free chunk.

Subclassed by pw::allocator::TypedPool< T >

Public Functions

ChunkPool(ByteSpan region, const Layout &layout)#

Construct a Pool that allocates from a region of memory.

Parameters:
  • region – The memory to allocate from. Must be large enough to allocate at least one chunk with the given layout.

  • layout – The size and alignment of the memory to be returned from this pool.

LibCAllocator#

class LibCAllocator : public pw::Allocator#

Memory allocator that uses malloc and free.

TODO: b/301930507 - aligned_alloc is not portable. As a result, this allocator has a maximum alignment of std::align_max_t.

Friends

friend LibCAllocator &GetLibCAllocator()#

Returns a reference to the LibCAllocator singleton.

NullAllocator#

class NullAllocator : public pw::Allocator#

A memory allocator that always fails to allocate memory.

A null allocator may be useful as part of a larger framework if allocation should be disallowed under certain circumstances. For example, a function that returns different allocators based on an input parameter may return a null allocator when given an invalid or unsupported parameter value.

Friends

friend NullAllocator &GetNullAllocator()#

Returns a reference to the NullAllocator singleton.

TypedPool#

template<typename T>
class TypedPool : public pw::allocator::ChunkPool#

Typed pool that can be used for slab allocation.

This class is a special purpose pool designed to allocate objects of one specific type, T. It is useful when you need a dynamic pool of objects with very low performance and memory overhead costs. For example, a dispatcher might use such an allocator to manage memory for a set of task objects.

Template Parameters:

T – The type of object to allocate memory for.

Public Functions

template<size_t kNumObjects>
inline TypedPool(Buffer<kNumObjects> &buffer)#

Construct a TypedPool.

This constructor uses the Buffer type to minimize wasted memory. For example:

TypedPool<MyObject>::Buffer<100> buffer;
TypedPool<MyObject> my_pool(buffer);
Parameters:

buffer – The memory to allocate from.

inline TypedPool(ByteSpan region)#

Construct a TypedPool.

To minimize wasted memory, align the buffer provided to the allocator to the object type’s alignment. For example:

alignas(MyObject) std::array<std::byte, 0x1000> buffer;
TypedPool<MyObject> my_pool(buffer);
Parameters:

region – The memory to allocate from. Must be large enough to allocate memory for at least one object.

template<int&... ExplicitGuard, typename ...Args>
inline T *New(Args&&... args)#

Constructs and object from the given args

This method is similar to Allocator::New, except that it is specific to the pool’s object type.

Parameters:

args...[in] Arguments passed to the object constructor.

template<int&... ExplicitGuard, typename ...Args>
inline UniquePtr<T> MakeUnique(Args&&... args)#

Constructs and object from the given args, and wraps it in a UniquePtr

This method is similar to Allocator::MakeUnique, except that it is specific to the pool’s object type.

Parameters:

args...[in] Arguments passed to the object constructor.

Public Static Functions

static inline constexpr size_t SizeNeeded(size_t num_objects)#

Returns the amount of memory needed to allocate num_objects.

static inline constexpr size_t AlignmentNeeded()#

Returns the optimal alignment for the backing memory region.

template<size_t kNumObjects>
struct Buffer#

Provides aligned storage for kNumObjects of type T.

Forwarding Allocators#

This module provides several “forwarding” allocators, as described in Forwarding allocator concept.

AllocatorAsPool#

class AllocatorAsPool : public pw::allocator::Pool#

Implementation of Pool that satisfies requests using an Allocator.

Public Functions

AllocatorAsPool(Allocator &allocator, const Layout &layout)#

Construct a Pool from an Allocator.

Parameters:
  • allocator – The allocator used to create fixed-size allocations.

  • layout – The size and alignment of the memory to be returned from this pool.

AsPmrAllocator#

class AsPmrAllocator : public pw::pmr::polymorphic_allocator<std::byte>#

Implementation of C++’s abstract polymorphic allocator interface that uses a pw::Allocator.

Note that despite is name, this is NOT a pw::Allocator itself. Instead, it can be used in pw::pmr containers, such as pw::pmr::vector.

See also https://en.cppreference.com/w/cpp/memory/polymorphic_allocator.

FallbackAllocator#

class FallbackAllocator : public pw::Allocator#

This class simply dispatches between a primary and secondary allocator. Any attempt to allocate memory will first be handled by the primary allocator. If it cannot allocate memory, e.g. because it is out of memory, the secondary alloator will try to allocate memory instead.

Public Functions

FallbackAllocator(Allocator &primary, Allocator &secondary)#

Constructor.

Parameters:
  • primary[in] Allocator tried first. Must implement Query.

  • secondary[in] Allocator tried if primary fails a request.

SynchronizedAllocator#

template<typename LockType>
class SynchronizedAllocator : public pw::Allocator#

Wraps an Allocator with a lock to synchronize access.

Depending on the LockType, this object may be thread- and/or interrupt- safe. For example, SynchronizedAllocator<pw::sync::Mutex> is thread-safe, while SynchronizedAllocator<pw::sync::InterruptSpinLock> is thread- and interrupt-safe.

Template Parameters:

LockType – The type of the lock used to synchronize allocator access. Must be default-constructible.

TrackingAllocator#

template<typename MetricsType>
class TrackingAllocator : public pw::Allocator#

Wraps an Allocator and records details of its usage.

Metric collection is performed using the provided template parameter type. Callers can not instantiate this class directly, as it lacks a public constructor. Instead, callers should use derived classes which provide the template parameter type, such as TrackingAllocator which uses the default metrics implementation, or TrackingAllocatorForTest which always uses the real metrics implementation.

Utility Classes#

In addition to providing allocator implementations themselves, this module includes some utility classes.

Block#

template<typename OffsetType = uintptr_t, size_t kAlign = alignof(OffsetType), bool kCanPoison = false>
class Block#

Memory region with links to adjacent blocks.

The blocks do not encode their size directly. Instead, they encode offsets to the next and previous blocks using the type given by the OffsetType template parameter. The encoded offsets are simply the offsets divded by the minimum block alignment, kAlignment.

The kAlignment constant provided by the derived block is typically the minimum value of alignof(OffsetType). Since the addressable range of a block is given by std::numeric_limits<OffsetType>::max() * kAlignment, it may be advantageous to set a higher alignment if it allows using a smaller offset type, even if this wastes some bytes in order to align block headers.

Blocks will always be aligned to a kAlignment boundary. Block sizes will always be rounded up to a multiple of kAlignment.

If kCanPoison is set, allocators may call Poison to overwrite the contents of a block with a poison pattern. This pattern will subsequently be checked when allocating blocks, and can detect memory corruptions such as use-after-frees.

As an example, the diagram below represents two contiguous Block<uint32_t, true, 8>s. The indices indicate byte offsets:

Block 1:
+---------------------+------+--------------+
| Header              | Info | Usable space |
+----------+----------+------+--------------+
| Prev     | Next     |      |              |
| 0......3 | 4......7 | 8..9 | 10.......280 |
| 00000000 | 00000046 | 8008 |  <app data>  |
+----------+----------+------+--------------+
Block 2:
+---------------------+------+--------------+
| Header              | Info | Usable space |
+----------+----------+------+--------------+
| Prev     | Next     |      |              |
| 0......3 | 4......7 | 8..9 | 10......1056 |
| 00000046 | 00000106 | 6008 | f7f7....f7f7 |
+----------+----------+------+--------------+

The overall size of the block (e.g. 280 bytes) is given by its next offset multiplied by the alignment (e.g. 0x106 * 4). Also, the next offset of a block matches the previous offset of its next block. The first block in a list is denoted by having a previous offset of 0.

Template Parameters:
  • OffsetType – Unsigned integral type used to encode offsets. Larger types can address more memory, but consume greater overhead.

  • kCanPoison – Indicates whether to enable poisoning free blocks.

  • kAlign – Sets the overall alignment for blocks. Minimum is alignof(OffsetType) (the default). Larger values can address more memory, but consume greater overhead.

Public Functions

inline size_t OuterSize() const#
Returns:

The total size of the block in bytes, including the header.

inline size_t InnerSize() const#
Returns:

The number of usable bytes inside the block.

inline size_t RequestedSize() const#
Returns:

The number of bytes requested using AllocFirst, AllocLast, or Resize.

inline std::byte *UsableSpace()#
Returns:

A pointer to the usable space inside this block.

StatusWithSize CanAllocLast(Layout layout) const#

Checks if an aligned block could be split from the end of the block.

On error, this method will return the same status as AllocLast without performing any modifications.

Pre:

The block must not be in use.

Returns:

Code

Description

OK

Returns the number of bytes to shift this block in order to align its usable space.

FAILED_PRECONDITION

This block is in use and cannot be split.

OUT_OF_RANGE

The requested size is greater than the current size.

RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED

The remaining space is too small to hold a new block.

Block *Next() const#

Fetches the block immediately after this one.

For performance, this always returns a block pointer, even if the returned pointer is invalid. The pointer is valid if and only if Last() is false.

Typically, after calling Init callers may save a pointer past the end of the list using Next(). This makes it easy to subsequently iterate over the list:

auto result = Block<>::Init(byte_span);
Block<>* begin = *result;
Block<>* end = begin->Next();
...
for (auto* block = begin; block != end; block = block->Next()) {
  // Do something which each block.
}

Block *Prev() const#
Returns:

The block immediately before this one, or a null pointer if this is the first block.

inline size_t Alignment() const#

Returns the current alignment of a block.

inline bool Used() const#

Indicates whether the block is in use.

Returns:

true if the block is in use or false if not.

inline bool Last() const#

Indicates whether this block is the last block or not (i.e. whether Next() points to a valid block or not). This is needed because Next() points to the end of this block, whether there is a valid block there or not.

Returns:

true is this is the last block or false if not.

inline void MarkUsed()#

Marks this block as in use.

inline void MarkFree()#

Marks this block as free.

inline void MarkLast()#

Marks this block as the last one in the chain.

inline void ClearLast()#

Clears the last bit from this block.

void Poison(bool should_poison = true)#

Poisons the block’s usable space.

This method does nothing if kCanPoison is false, or if the block is in use, or if should_poison is false. The decision to poison a block is deferred to the allocator to allow for more nuanced strategies than simply all or nothing. For example, an allocator may want to balance security and performance by only poisoning every n-th free block.

Parameters:

should_poison – Indicates tha block should be poisoned, if poisoning is enabled.

inline bool IsValid() const#

Checks if a block is valid.

Returns:

true if and only if the following conditions are met:

  • The block is aligned.

  • The prev/next fields match with the previous and next blocks.

  • The poisoned bytes are not damaged (if poisoning is enabled).

void CrashIfInvalid() const#

Crashes with an informtaional message if a block is invalid.

Does nothing if the block is valid.

Public Static Functions

static Result<Block*> Init(ByteSpan region)#

Creates the first block for a given memory region.

Returns:

Code

Description

OK

Returns a block representing the region.

INVALID_ARGUMENT

The region is null.

RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED

The region is too small for a block.

OUT_OF_RANGE

The region is too big to be addressed using OffsetType.

template<int&... DeducedTypesOnly, typename PtrType, bool is_const_ptr = std::is_const_v<std::remove_pointer_t<PtrType>>, typename BytesPtr = std::conditional_t<is_const_ptr, const std::byte*, std::byte*>, typename BlockPtr = std::conditional_t<is_const_ptr, const Block*, Block*>>
static inline BlockPtr FromUsableSpace(
PtrType usable_space,
)#

This is the inverse of UsableSpace().

Warning

This method does not do any checking; passing a random pointer will return a non-null pointer.

Returns:

A pointer to a Block, given a pointer to the start of the usable space inside the block.

static Status AllocFirst(Block *&block, Layout layout)#

Splits an aligned block from the start of the block, and marks it as used.

If successful, block will be replaced by a block that has an inner size of at least inner_size, and whose starting address is aligned to an alignment boundary. If unsuccessful, block will be unmodified.

This method is static in order to consume and replace the given block pointer with a pointer to the new, smaller block. In total, up to two additional blocks may be created: one to pad the returned block to an alignment boundary and one for the trailing space.

Pre:

The block must not be in use.

Returns:

Code

Description

OK

The split completed successfully.

FAILED_PRECONDITION

This block is in use and cannot be split.

OUT_OF_RANGE

The requested size plus padding needed for alignment is greater than the current size.

static Status AllocLast(Block *&block, Layout layout)#

Splits an aligned block from the end of the block, and marks it as used.

If successful, block will be replaced by a block that has an inner size of at least inner_size, and whose starting address is aligned to an alignment boundary. If unsuccessful, block will be unmodified.

This method is static in order to consume and replace the given block pointer with a pointer to the new, smaller block. An additional block may be created for the leading space.

Pre:

The block must not be in use.

Returns:

Code

Description

OK

The split completed successfully.

FAILED_PRECONDITION

This block is in use and cannot be split.

OUT_OF_RANGE

The requested size is greater than the current size.

RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED

The remaining space is too small to hold a new block.

static void Free(Block *&block)#

Marks the block as free and merges it with any free neighbors.

This method is static in order to consume and replace the given block pointer. If neither member is free, the returned pointer will point to the original block. Otherwise, it will point to the new, larger block created by merging adjacent free blocks together.

static Status Resize(Block *&block, size_t new_inner_size)#

Grows or shrinks the block.

If successful, block may be merged with the block after it in order to provide additional memory (when growing) or to merge released memory (when shrinking). If unsuccessful, block will be unmodified.

This method is static in order to consume and replace the given block pointer with a pointer to the new, smaller block.

Pre:

The block must be in use.

Returns:

Code

Description

OK

The resize completed successfully.

FAILED_PRECONDITION

This block is not in use.

OUT_OF_RANGE

The requested size is greater than the available space.

class Iterator#

Represents an iterator that moves forward through a list of blocks.

This class is not typically instantiated directly, but rather using a range-based for-loop using Block::Range.

class Range#

Represents a range of blocks that can be iterated over.

The typical usage of this class is in a range-based for-loop, e.g.

for (auto* block : Range(first, last)) { ... }

Public Functions

inline explicit Range(Block *begin)#

Constructs a range including begin and all valid following blocks.

inline Range(Block *begin_inclusive, Block *end_inclusive)#

Constructs a range of blocks from begin to end, inclusively.

class ReverseIterator#

Represents an iterator that moves forward through a list of blocks.

This class is not typically instantiated directly, but rather using a range-based for-loop using Block::ReverseRange.

class ReverseRange#

Represents a range of blocks that can be iterated over in the reverse direction.

The typical usage of this class is in a range-based for-loop, e.g.

for (auto* block : ReverseRange(last, first)) { ... }

Public Functions

inline explicit ReverseRange(Block *rbegin)#

Constructs a range including rbegin and all valid preceding blocks.

inline ReverseRange(Block *rbegin_inclusive, Block *rend_inclusive)#

Constructs a range of blocks from rbegin to rend, inclusively.

Tip

Avoid converting pointers to allocations into Block instances, even if you know your memory is coming from a BlockAllocator. Breaking the abstraction in this manner will limit your flexibility to change to a different allocator in the future.

Bucket#

class Bucket#

Doubly linked list of free memory regions, or “chunks”, of a maximum size or less.

Public Functions

Bucket()#

Constructs a bucket with an unbounded chunk size.

explicit Bucket(size_t chunk_size)#

Construct a bucket.

Parameters:

chunk_size – The maximum size of the memory chunks in this bucket. Must be at least sizeof(Chunk).

size_t count() const#

Returns the number of the chunks in the bucket.

Note: This method runs in O(n) time.

void Add(std::byte *ptr)#

Adds a memory region to this bucket.

Parameters:

ptr – The memory region to be added.

void Visit(const Function<void(const std::byte*)> &visitor) const#

Applies the given function to each chunk in the bucket.

std::byte *Remove()#

Removes a chunk from this bucket.

Return values:

The – removed region, or null if the bucket is empty.

std::byte *RemoveIf(const Function<bool(const std::byte*)> &cond)#

Removes a chunk for which a given condition is met.

This will remove at most one chunk.

Return values:

The – first chunk for which the condition evaluates to true, null if the bucket does not contain any such chunk.

Parameters:

cond – The condition to be tested on the chunks in this bucket.

Public Static Functions

static void Init(span<Bucket> buckets, size_t min_chunk_size)#

Creates a list of buckets, with each twice as large as the one before it.

static std::byte *Remove(std::byte *ptr)#

Removes a chunk from any bucket it is a part of.

Return values:

The – removed region, for convenience.

Parameters:

ptr – The memory region to be removed.

struct Chunk#

When part of a Bucket, each Chunk will contain a pointer to the next and previous chunks in the bucket.

Metrics#

template<typename MetricsType>
class Metrics#

Encapsulates the metrics struct for pw::allocator::TrackingAllocator.

This class uses the type traits from PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_DECLARE to conditionally include or exclude code to update metrics based on calls to the pw::Allocator API. This minimizes code size without adding additional conditions to be evaluated at runtime.

Template Parameters:

MetricsType – The struct defining which metrics are enabled.

Public Functions

void ModifyRequested(size_t increase, size_t decrease)#

Updates how much memory was requested and successfully allocated.

This will update the current, peak, and cumulative amounts of memory requests that were satisfied by an allocator.

Parameters:
  • increase – How much memory was requested to be allocated.

  • decrease – How much memory was requested to be freed.

void ModifyAllocated(size_t increase, size_t decrease)#

Updates how much memory is allocated.

This will update the current, peak, and cumulative amounts of memory that has been actually allocated or freed. This method acts as if it frees memory before allocating. If a routine suchas Reallocate allocates before freeing, the update should be separated into two calls, e.g.

ModifyAllocated(increase, 0);
ModifyAllocated(0, decrease);
Parameters:
  • increase – How much memory was allocated.

  • decrease – How much memory was freed.

void IncrementAllocations()#

Records that a call to Allocate was made.

void IncrementDeallocations()#

Records that a call to Deallocate was made.

void IncrementResizes()#

Records that a call to Resize was made.

void IncrementReallocations()#

Records that a call to Reallocate was made.

void RecordFailure(size_t requested)#

Records that a call to Allocate, Resize, or Reallocate failed.

This may indicated that memory becoming exhausted and/or highly fragmented.

Parameters:

requested – How much memory was requested in the failed call.

This class is templated on a MetricsType struct. See Allocator metrics for additional details on how the struct, this class, and TrackingAllocator interact.

Module consumers can define their own metrics structs using the following macros:

PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_DECLARE(metric_name)#

Declares the names of metrics used by pw::allocator::Metrics.

Only the names of declared metrics may be passed to PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_ENABLE as part of a metrics struct definition.

This macro generates trait types that are used by Metrics to conditionally include metric-related code.

Note: if enabling `peak_allocated_bytes or cumulative_allocated_bytes, allocated_bytes should also be enabled.

PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_ENABLE(metric_name)#

Enables a metric for in a metrics struct.

The pw::allocator::TrackingAllocator template takes a struct that enables zero or more of the metrics enumerated by PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_DECLARE`.

This struct may be one of AllMetrics or NoMetrics, or may be a custom struct that selects a subset of metrics.

Note that this must be fully-qualified since the metric struct may be defined in any namespace.

Example:

struct MyMetrics {
  PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_ENABLE(allocated_bytes);
  PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_ENABLE(peak_allocated_bytes);
  PW_ALLOCATOR_METRICS_ENABLE(num_failures);
};

Fragmentation#

struct Fragmentation#

Information that can be used to represent the fragmentation of the block allocator’s memory region.

Fragmentation can be measured as 1 minus the normalized root-sum-square of the unused chunk sizes, i.e.

1 - (sqrt(sum(U[i]^2)) / sum(U[i])

where U[i] is the inner size of the i-th unused chunk.

This metric has been described by Adam Sawicki (https://asawicki.info/news_1757_a_metric_for_memory_fragmentation), and used in esp8266/Arduino (https://github.com/esp8266/Arduino/blob/master/cores/esp8266/Esp-frag.cpp), among others.

This struct provides the sum-of-squares and the sum of the inner sizes of free blocks. It is left to the caller to perform the square root and division steps, perhaps on a host, AP, or other device with better floating point support.

The sum-of-squares is stored as a pair of sizes, since it can overflow.

Public Members

struct pw::allocator::Fragmentation::[anonymous] sum_of_squares#

Sum-of-squares of the inner sizes of free blocks.

size_t sum = 0#

Sum of the inner sizes of free blocks.

SizeReporter#

This module includes a utility class for generating size reports. It is intended for allocator implementers and not for module consumers.

class SizeReporter#

Utility class for generating allocator size reports.

The pw_bloat module can be used to compare the size of binaries. This class facilitates creating binaries with and without a given allocator type.

To create a size report:

  1. Make a copy of //pw_allocator/size_report/base.cc

  2. Instantiate your allocator and pass it to MeasureAllocator.

  3. Create build target(s) for your binary, and a pw_size_diff target that compares it to “$dir_pw_allocator/size_report:base”.

Public Functions

inline void Measure(Allocator &allocator)#

Exercises an allocator as part of a size report.

Parameters:

allocator[in] The allocator to exercise. Will be ignored if not derived from Allocator.

struct Bar#

Nested type used for exercising an allocator.

struct Baz#

Nested type used for exercising an allocator.

struct Foo#

Nested type used for exercising an allocator.

Buffer management#

template<typename T, size_t kBufferSize, size_t kAlignment = 1>
class WithBuffer#

Associates a default-constructed type with a memory buffer.

Although the type is arbitrary, the intended purpose of of this class is to provide allocators with memory to use, e.g. when testing.

This class uses composition instead of inheritance in order to allow the wrapped type’s destructor to reference the memory without risk of a use-after-free. As a result, the specific methods of the wrapped type are not directly accesible. Instead, they can be accessed using the * and -> operators, e.g.

WithBuffer<MyAllocator, 256> allocator;
allocator->MethodSpecificToMyAllocator();

Note that this class does NOT initialize the allocator, since initialization is not specified as part of the Allocator interface and may vary from allocator to allocator. As a result, typical usage includes deriving a class that initializes the wrapped allocator with the buffer in a constructor. See AllocatorForTest for an example.

Template Parameters:
  • T – The wrapped object.

  • kBufferSize – The size of the backing memory, in bytes.

  • kAlignment – Buffer memory will be aligned to this alignment boundary.

Test support#

This module includes test utilities for allocator implementers. These facilitate writing unit tests and fuzz tests for both concrete and forwarding allocator implementations. They are not intended to be used by module consumers.

AllocatorForTest#

template<size_t kBufferSize, typename MetricsType = internal::AllMetrics>
class AllocatorForTest : public pw::Allocator#

An AllocatorForTest that is automatically initialized on construction.

Public Functions

inline void ResetParameters()#

Resets the recorded parameters to an initial state.

inline void Exhaust()#

Allocates all the memory from this object.

TestHarness#

template<size_t kMaxConcurrentAllocations>
class TestHarness : public pw::allocator::test::TestHarnessGeneric#

Associates an Allocator with a vector to store allocated pointers.

This class differes from its base class only in that it uses its template parameter to explicitly size the vector used to store allocated pointers.

This class does NOT implement WithAllocationsGeneric::Init. It must be extended further with a method that provides an initialized allocator.

For example, one create a fuzzer for MyAllocator that verifies it never crashes by adding the following class, function, and macro:

constexpr size_t kMaxRequests = 256;
constexpr size_t kMaxAllocations = 128;
constexpr size_t kMaxSize = 2048;

class MyAllocatorFuzzer : public TestHarness<kMaxAllocations> {
 private:
  Allocator* Init() override { return &allocator_; }
  MyAllocator allocator_;
};

void MyAllocatorNeverCrashes(const Vector<Request>& requests) {
  static MyAllocatorFuzzer fuzzer;
  fuzzer.HandleRequests(requests);
}

FUZZ_TEST(MyAllocator, MyAllocatorNeverCrashes)
  .WithDomains(ArbitraryRequests<kMaxRequests, kMaxSize>());

FuzzTest support#

fuzzer::Domain<Request> pw::allocator::test::ArbitraryRequest(size_t max_size)#

Returns a FuzzTest domain for producing arbitrary allocator requests.

This method integrates with FuzzTest to use code coverage to produce guided mutations.

See https://github.com/google/fuzztest/blob/main/doc/domains-reference.md

Parameters:

max_size – Size of the largest allocation that can be requested.

template<size_t kMaxRequests, size_t kMaxSize>
auto pw::allocator::test::ArbitraryRequests()#

Returns a FuzzTest domain for producing sequences of arbitrary allocator requests.

This method can be used to drive an AllocatorTestHarness as part of a fuzz test.

See https://github.com/google/fuzztest/blob/main/doc/domains-reference.md

Parameters:

max_size – Size of the largest allocation that can be requested.

template<size_t kIndex, typename ...Args>
Request pw::allocator::test::MakeRequest(Args... args)#

Builds an Request from an index and values.

Unfortunately, the reproducer emitted by FuzzTest for vectors of Requests cannot simply be copied and pasted. To create a reproducer, create a pw::Vector of the appropriate size, and populate it using this method with the correct index.

For example, consider the following sample output:

The test fails with input:
argument 0: {(index=0, value={0, 1}), (index=0, value={1209, 8}),
(index=2, value={9223372036854775807, 2048})}

=================================================================
=== Reproducer test

TEST(MyAllocatorFuzzTest, NeverCrashesU16Regression) {
  NeverCrashes(
    {{0, 1}, {1209, 8}, {9223372036854775807, 2048},
  );
}

A valid reproducer might be:

    TEST(MyAllocatorFuzzTest, NeverCrashesU16Regression) {
      Vector<test::Request, 3> input({
        test::MakeRequest<0>(0u, 1u),
        test::MakeRequest<0>(1209u, 8u),
        test::MakeRequest<2>(9223372036854775807u, 2048u),
      });
      NeverCrashes(input);
// }