pw_thread_threadx

This is a set of backends for pw_thread based on ThreadX.

Warning

This module is still under construction, the API is not yet stable.

Thread Creation Backend

A backend for pw::thread::Thread is offered using tx_thread_create. Optional joining support is enabled via an TX_EVENT_FLAGS_GROUP in each thread’s context.

This backend permits users to start threads where contexts must be explicitly allocated and passed in as an option. As a quick example, a detached thread can be created as follows:

#include "pw_thread/detached_thread.h"
#include "pw_thread_threadx/config.h"
#include "pw_thread_threadx/context.h"
#include "pw_thread_threadx/options.h"
#include "tx_api.h"

constexpr UINT kFooPriority =
    pw::thread::threadx::config::kDefaultPriority;
constexpr ULONG kFooTimeSliceInterval =
    pw::thread::threadx::config::kDefaultTimeSliceInterval;
constexpr size_t kFooStackSizeWords =
    pw::thread::threadx::config::kDefaultStackSizeWords;

pw::thread::threadx::ContextWithStack<kFooStackSizeWords>
    example_thread_context;
void StartExampleThread() {
  pw::thread::DetachedThread(
      pw::thread::threadx::Options()
          .set_name("example_thread")
          .set_priority(kFooPriority)
          .set_time_slice_interval(kFooTimeSliceInterval)
          .set_context(example_thread_context),
      example_thread_function);
}

pw_thread Facade

Backend Target

Description

pw_thread:id

pw_thread_threadx:id

Thread identification.

pw_thread:yield

pw_thread_threadx:yield

Thread scheduler yielding.

pw_thread:sleep

pw_thread_threadx:sleep

Thread scheduler sleeping.

pw_thread:thread

pw_thread_threadx:thread

Thread creation.

Module Configuration Options

The following configurations can be adjusted via compile-time configuration of this module, see the module documentation for more details.

PW_THREAD_THREADX_CONFIG_JOINING_ENABLED

Whether thread joining is enabled. By default this is disabled.

We suggest only enabling this when thread joining is required to minimize the RAM and ROM cost of threads.

Enabling this grows the RAM footprint of every pw::thread::Thread as it adds a TX_EVENT_FLAGS_GROUP to every thread’s pw::thread::threadx::Context. In addition, there is a minute ROM cost to construct and destroy this added object.

PW_THREAD_JOINING_ENABLED gets set to this value.

PW_THREAD_THREADX_CONFIG_DEFAULT_STACK_SIZE_WORDS

The default stack size in words. By default this uses the minimal ThreadX stack size.

PW_THREAD_THREADX_CONFIG_MAX_THREAD_NAME_LEN

The maximum length of a thread’s name, not including null termination. By default this is arbitrarily set to 15. This results in an array of characters which is this length + 1 bytes in every pw::thread::Thread’s context.

PW_THREAD_THREADX_CONFIG_DEFAULT_TIME_SLICE_INTERVAL

The round robin time slice tick interval for threads at the same priority. By default this is disabled as not all ports support this, using a value of 0 ticks.

PW_THREAD_THREADX_CONFIG_MIN_PRIORITY

The minimum priority level, this is normally based on the number of priority levels.

PW_THREAD_THREADX_CONFIG_DEFAULT_PRIORITY

The default priority level. By default this uses the minimal ThreadX priority level, given that 0 is the highest priority.

PW_THREAD_THREADX_CONFIG_LOG_LEVEL

The log level to use for this module. Logs below this level are omitted.

ThreadX Thread Options

class pw::thread::threadx::Options
set_name(const char *name)

Sets the name for the ThreadX thread, note that this will be deep copied into the context and may be truncated based on PW_THREAD_THREADX_CONFIG_MAX_THREAD_NAME_LEN.

set_priority(UINT priority)

Sets the priority for the ThreadX thread from 0 through 31, where a value of 0 represents the highest priority, see ThreadX tx_thread_create for more detail.

Precondition: priority <= PW_THREAD_THREADX_CONFIG_MIN_PRIORITY.

set_preemption_threshold(UINT preemption_threshold)

Optionally sets the preemption threshold for the ThreadX thread from 0 through 31.

Only priorities higher than this level (i.e. lower number) are allowed to preempt this thread. In other words this allows the thread to specify the priority ceiling for disabling preemption. Threads that have a higher priority than the ceiling are still allowed to preempt while those with less than the ceiling are not allowed to preempt.

Not setting the preemption threshold or explicitly specifying a value equal to the priority disables preemption threshold.

Time slicing is disabled while the preemption threshold is enabled, i.e. not equal to the priority, even if a time slice interval was specified.

The preemption threshold can be adjusted at run time, this only sets the initial threshold.

Precondition: preemption_threshold <= priority

set_time_slice_interval(UINT time_slice_interval)

Sets the number of ticks this thread is allowed to run before other ready threads of the same priority are given a chance to run.

Time slicing is disabled while the preemption threshold is enabled, i.e. not equal to the priority, even if a time slice interval was specified.

A value of TX_NO_TIME_SLICE (a value of 0) disables time-slicing of this thread.

Using time slicing results in a slight amount of system overhead, threads with a unique priority should consider TX_NO_TIME_SLICE.

set_context(pw::thread::embos::Context &context)

Set the pre-allocated context (all memory needed to run a thread). Note that this is required for this thread creation backend! The Context can either be constructed with an externally provided std::span<ULONG> stack or the templated form of ContextWihtStack<kStackSizeWords can be used.

Thread Identification Backend

A backend for pw::thread::Id and pw::thread::get_id() is offerred using tx_thread_identify(). It uses DASSERT to ensure that a thread is executing via TX_THREAD_GET_SYSTEM_STATE().

Thread Sleep Backend

A backend for pw::thread::sleep_for() and pw::thread::sleep_until() is offerred using tx_thread_sleep() if the duration is at least one tick, else tx_thread_relinquish() is used. It uses pw::this_thread::get_id() != thread::Id() to ensure it invoked only from a thread.

Thread Yield Backend

A backend for pw::thread::yield() is offered using via tx_thread_relinquish(). It uses pw::this_thread::get_id() != thread::Id() to ensure it invoked only from a thread.

Utilities

ForEachThread()

In cases where an operation must be performed for every thread, ForEachThread() can be used to iterate over all the created thread TCBs. Note that it’s only safe to use this while the scheduler is disabled.

An Aborted error status is returned if the provided callback returns false to request an early termination of thread iteration.

Return values

  • Aborted: The callback requested an early-termination of thread iteration.

  • OkStatus: The callback has been successfully run with every thread.

Snapshot integration

This pw_thread backend provides helper functions that capture ThreadX thread state to a pw::thread::Thread proto.

SnapshotThreads()

SnapshotThread() captures the thread name, state, and stack information for the provided ThreadX TCB to a pw::thread::Thread protobuf encoder. To ensure the most up-to-date information is captured, the stack pointer for the currently running thread must be provided for cases where the running thread is being captured. For ARM Cortex-M CPUs, you can do something like this:

// Capture PSP.
void* stack_ptr = 0;
asm volatile("mrs %0, psp\n" : "=r"(stack_ptr));
pw::thread::ProcessThreadStackCallback cb =
    [](pw::thread::Thread::StreamEncoder& encoder,
       pw::ConstByteSpan stack) -> pw::Status {
  return encoder.WriteRawStack(stack);
};
pw::thread::threadx::SnapshotThread(my_thread, stack_ptr,
                                    snapshot_encoder, cb);

SnapshotThreads() wraps the singular thread capture to instead captures all created threads to a pw::thread::SnapshotThreadInfo message. This proto message overlays a snapshot, so it is safe to static cast a pw::snapshot::Snapshot::StreamEncoder to a pw::thread::SnapshotThreadInfo::StreamEncoder when calling this function.