This directory contains the
pw command line interface (CLI) that facilitates
working with Pigweed. The CLI module adds several subcommands prefixed with
pw, and provides a mechanism for other Pigweed modules to behave as
“plugins” and register themselves as
pw commands as well. After activating
the Pigweed environment, these commands will be available for use.
pw includes the following commands by default:
doctor Check that the environment is set up correctly for Pigweed. format Check and fix formatting for source files. help Display detailed information about pw commands. logdemo Show how logs look at various levels. module-check Check that a module matches Pigweed's module guidelines. test Run Pigweed unit tests built using GN. watch Watch files for changes and rebuild.
To see an up-to-date list of
pw subcommands, run
pw subcommands are invoked by providing the command name. Arguments prior to
the command are interpreted by
pw itself; all arguments after the command
name are interpreted by the command.
Here are some example invocations of
# Run the doctor command $ pw doctor # Run format --fix with debug-level logs $ pw --loglevel debug format --fix # Display help for the pw command $ pw -h watch # Display help for the watch command $ pw watch -h
Projects can register their own Python scripts as
plugins are registered by providing the command name, module, and function in a
PW_PLUGINS files can add new commands or override
built-in commands. Since they are accessed by module name, plugins must be
defined in Python packages that are installed in the Pigweed virtual
Plugin registrations in a
PW_PLUGINS file apply to the their directory and
all subdirectories, similarly to configuration files like
Registered plugins appear as commands in the
pw tool when
pw is run from
Projects that wish to register commands might place a
PW_PLUGINS file in the
root of their repo. Multiple
PW_PLUGINS files may be applied, but the
tool gives precedence to a
PW_PLUGINS file in the current working directory
or the nearest parent directory.
PW_PLUGINS file format¶
PW_PLUGINS contains one plugin entry per line in the following format:
# Lines that start with a # are ignored. <command name> <Python module> <function>
The following example registers three commands:
# Register the presubmit script as pw presubmit presubmit my_cool_project.tools run_presubmit # Override the pw test command with a custom version test my_cool_project.testing run_test # Add a custom command flash my_cool_project.flash main
Defining a plugin function¶
Any function without required arguments may be used as a plugin function. The
function should return an int, which the
pw uses as the exit code. The
pw tool uses the function docstring as the help string for the command.
pw commands parse their arguments with the
sys.argv so it contains only the arguments for the plugin,
so plugins can behave the same whether they are executed independently or
This example shows a function that is registered as a
# my_package/my_module.py def _do_something(device): ... def main() -> int: """Do something to a connected device.""" parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description=__doc__) parser.add_argument('--device', help='Set which device to target') return _do_something(**vars(parser.parse_args())) if __name__ == '__main__': logging.basicConfig(format='%(message)s', level=logging.INFO) sys.exit(main())
This plugin is registered in a
PW_PLUGINS file in the current working
directory or a parent of it.
# Register my_commmand my_command my_package.my_module main
The function is now available through the
pw command, and will be listed in
pw’s help. Arguments after the command name are passed to the plugin.
$ pw ▒█████▄ █▓ ▄███▒ ▒█ ▒█ ░▓████▒ ░▓████▒ ▒▓████▄ ▒█░ █░ ░█▒ ██▒ ▀█▒ ▒█░ █ ▒█ ▒█ ▀ ▒█ ▀ ▒█ ▀█▌ ▒█▄▄▄█░ ░█▒ █▓░ ▄▄░ ▒█░ █ ▒█ ▒███ ▒███ ░█ █▌ ▒█▀ ░█░ ▓█ █▓ ░█░ █ ▒█ ▒█ ▄ ▒█ ▄ ░█ ▄█▌ ▒█ ░█░ ░▓███▀ ▒█▓▀▓█░ ░▓████▒ ░▓████▒ ▒▓████▀ usage: pw [-h] [-C DIRECTORY] [-l LOGLEVEL] [--no-banner] [command] ... The Pigweed command line interface (CLI). ... supported commands: doctor Check that the environment is set up correctly for Pigweed. format Check and fix formatting for source files. help Display detailed information about pw commands. ... my_command Do something to a connected device. $ pw my_command -h ▒█████▄ █▓ ▄███▒ ▒█ ▒█ ░▓████▒ ░▓████▒ ▒▓████▄ ▒█░ █░ ░█▒ ██▒ ▀█▒ ▒█░ █ ▒█ ▒█ ▀ ▒█ ▀ ▒█ ▀█▌ ▒█▄▄▄█░ ░█▒ █▓░ ▄▄░ ▒█░ █ ▒█ ▒███ ▒███ ░█ █▌ ▒█▀ ░█░ ▓█ █▓ ░█░ █ ▒█ ▒█ ▄ ▒█ ▄ ░█ ▄█▌ ▒█ ░█░ ░▓███▀ ▒█▓▀▓█░ ░▓████▒ ░▓████▒ ▒▓████▀ usage: pw my_command [-h] [--device DEVICE] Do something to a connected device. optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit --device DEVICE Set which device to target
Branding Pigweed’s tooling¶
An important part of starting a new project is picking a name, and in the case of Pigweed, designing a banner for the project. Pigweed supports configuring the banners by setting environment variables:
PW_BRANDING_BANNER- Absolute path to a filename containing a banner to display when running the
pwcommands. See the example below.
PW_BRANDING_BANNER_COLOR- Color of the banner. Possible values include:
The below example shows how to manually change the branding at the command
line. However, these environment variables should be set in the project root’s
bootstrap.sh before delegating to Pigweed’s upstream
$ cat foo-banner.txt ▒██████ ░▓██▓░ ░▓██▓░ ▒█░ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█▄▄▄▄ ▒█ █ ▒█ ▒█ █ ▒█ ▒█▀ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█ ░▓██▓░ ░▓██▓░ $ export PW_BRANDING_BANNER="$(pwd)/foo-banner.txt" $ export PW_BRANDING_BANNER_COLOR="bold_red" $ pw logdemo ▒██████ ░▓██▓░ ░▓██▓░ ▒█░ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█▄▄▄▄ ▒█ █ ▒█ ▒█ █ ▒█ ▒█▀ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█ ▒█ ░▓██▓░ ░▓██▓░ 20200610 12:03:44 CRT This is a critical message 20200610 12:03:44 ERR There was an error on our last operation 20200610 12:03:44 WRN Looks like something is amiss; consider investigating 20200610 12:03:44 INF The operation went as expected 20200610 12:03:44 OUT Standard output of subprocess
The branding is not purely visual; it serves to make it clear which project an engineer is working with.
Making the ASCII / ANSI art¶
The most direct way to make the ASCII art is to create it with a text editor. However, there are some tools to make the process faster and easier.
Patorjk’s ASCII art generator - A great starting place, since you can copy and paste straight from the browser into a file, and then point
PW_BRANDING_BANNERat it. Most of the fonts use normal ASCII characters; and fonts with extended ASCII characters use the Unicode versions of them (needed for modern terminals).
Online ANSII Edit by Andy Herbert - Browser based editor that can export to mixed UTF-8 and ANSII color. It’s also open source. What’s nice about this editor is that you can create a multi-color banner, and save it with the
Export as ANSi (UTF-8)option, and use it directly as a Pigweed banner. One caveat is that the editor uses UTF-8 box drawing characters, which don’t work well with all terminals. However, the box drawing characters look so slick on terminals that support them that we feel this is a worthwhile tradeoff.
There are other options, but these require additional work to put into Pigweed since they only export in the traditional ANS or ICE formats. The old ANS formats do not have a converter (contributions welcome!). Here are some of the options as of mid-2020:
Playscii - Actively maintained.
Moebius - Actively maintained.
SyncDraw - Actively maintained, in 2020, in a CVS repository.
PabloDraw - Works on most desktop machines thanks to being written in .NET. Not maintained, but works well. Has an impresive brush system for organic style drawing.
TheDraw - One of the most popular ANSI art editors back in the 90s. Requires DOSBox to run on modern machines, but otherwise works. It has some of the most impressive capabilities, including supporting full-color multi-character fonts.
Future branding improvements¶
pw tool is a great start, but more changes are planned:
Supporting branding the
bootstrap/activatebanner, which for technical reasons is not the same code as the banner printing from the Python tooling. These will use the same
Supporting renaming the
pwcommand to something project specific, like
fooin this case.
Re-coloring the log headers from the
pw_cli Python package¶
pw_cli Pigweed module includes the
pw_cli Python package, which
provides utilities for creating command line tools with Pigweed.
Tools for configuring Python logging.
- pw_cli.log.all_loggers() Iterator[logging.Logger] ¶
Iterates over all loggers known to Python logging.
- pw_cli.log.c_to_py_log_level(c_level: int) int ¶
Converts pw_log C log-level macros to Python logging levels.
- pw_cli.log.install(level: Union[str, int] = 20, use_color: Optional[bool] = None, hide_timestamp: bool = False, log_file: Optional[Union[str, pathlib.Path]] = None, logger: Optional[logging.Logger] = None) None ¶
Configures the system logger for the default pw command log format.
If you have Python loggers separate from the root logger you can use pw_cli.log.install to get the Pigweed log formatting there too. For example:
import logging import pw_cli.log pw_cli.log.install( level=logging.INFO, use_color=True, hide_timestamp=False, log_file=(Path.home() / 'logs.txt'), logger=logging.getLogger(__package__), )
level – The logging level to apply. Default: logging.INFO.
use_color – When True include ANSI escape sequences to colorize log messages.
hide_timestamp – When True omit timestamps from the log formatting.
log_file – File to save logs into.
logger – Python Logger instance to install Pigweed formatting into. Defaults to the Python root logger: logging.getLogger().
- pw_cli.log.main() None ¶
Shows how logs look at various levels.
- pw_cli.log.set_all_loggers_minimum_level(level: int) None ¶
Increases the log level to the specified value for all known loggers.
pw_cli.plugins provides general purpose plugin functionality. The
module can be used to create plugins for command line tools, interactive
consoles, or anything else. Pigweed’s
pw command uses this module for its
Plugins may be registered in a few different ways.
- registry = pw_cli.plugins.Registry() registry.register('plugin_name', my_plugin) registry.register_by_name('plugin_name', 'module_name', 'function_name')
Decorator. Register using the
pw_cli.plugins.Registry.plugin()decorator._REGISTRY = pw_cli.plugins.Registry() # This function is registered as the "my_plugin" plugin. @_REGISTRY.plugin def my_plugin(): pass # This function is registered as the "input" plugin. @_REGISTRY.plugin(name='input') def read_something(): pass
The decorator may be aliased to give a cleaner syntax (e.g.
register = my_registry.plugin).
Plugins files. Plugins files use a simple format:# Comments start with "#". Blank lines are ignored. name_of_the_plugin module.name module_member another_plugin some_module some_function
These files are placed in the file system and apply similarly to Git’s
.gitignorefiles. From Python, these files are registered using
pw_cli.plugins module reference¶
Provides general purpose plugin functionality.
As used in this module, a plugin is a Python object associated with a name. Plugins are registered in a Registry. The plugin object is typically a function, but can be anything.
Plugins may be loaded in a variety of ways:
Listed in a plugins file in the file system (e.g. as “name module target”).
Registered in a Python file using a decorator (@my_registry.plugin).
Registered directly or by name with function calls on a registry object.
This functionality can be used to create plugins for command line tools, interactive consoles, or anything else. Pigweed’s pw command uses this module for its plugins.
- exception pw_cli.plugins.Error¶
Indicates that a plugin is invalid or cannot be registered.
- class pw_cli.plugins.Plugin(name: str, target: Any, source: Optional[pathlib.Path] = None)¶
Represents a Python entity registered as a plugin.
Each plugin resolves to a Python object, typically a function.
- __init__(name: str, target: Any, source: Optional[pathlib.Path] = None) None ¶
Creates a plugin for the provided target.
- classmethod from_name(name: str, module_name: str, member_name: str, source: Optional[pathlib.Path]) pw_cli.plugins.Plugin ¶
Creates a plugin by module and attribute name.
name – the name of the plugin
module_name – Python module name (e.g. ‘foo_pkg.bar’)
member_name – the name of the member in the module
source – path to the plugins file that declared this plugin, if any
- help(full: bool = False) str ¶
Returns a description of this plugin from its docstring.
- run_with_argv(argv: Iterable[str]) int ¶
Sets sys.argv and calls the plugin function.
This is used to call a plugin as if from the command line.
- class pw_cli.plugins.Registry(validator: Callable[[pw_cli.plugins.Plugin], Any] = <function Registry.<lambda>>)¶
Manages a set of plugins from Python modules or plugins files.
- __init__(validator: Callable[[pw_cli.plugins.Plugin], Any] = <function Registry.<lambda>>) None ¶
Creates a new, empty plugins registry.
validator – Function that checks whether a plugin is valid and should be registered. Must raise plugins.Error is the plugin is invalid.
- detailed_help(plugins: Iterable[str] = ()) Iterator[str] ¶
Yields lines of detailed information about commands.
- plugin(function: Optional[Callable] = None, *, name: Optional[str] = None) Callable[[Callable], Callable] ¶
Decorator that registers a function with this plugin registry.
- register_by_name(name: str, module_name: str, member_name: str, source: Optional[pathlib.Path] = None) Optional[pw_cli.plugins.Plugin] ¶
Registers an object from its module and name as a plugin.
- register_directory(directory: pathlib.Path, file_name: str, restrict_to: Optional[pathlib.Path] = None) None ¶
Finds and registers plugins from plugins files in a directory.
directory – The directory from which to start searching up.
file_name – The name of plugins files to look for.
restrict_to – If provided, do not search higher than this directory.
- register_file(path: pathlib.Path) None ¶
Registers plugins from a plugins file.
Any exceptions raised from parsing the file are caught and logged.
- run_with_argv(name: str, argv: Iterable[str]) int ¶
Runs a plugin by name, setting sys.argv to the provided args.
This is used to run a command as if it were executed directly from the command line. The plugin is expected to return an int.
KeyError if plugin is not registered. –
- short_help() str ¶
Returns a help string for the registered plugins.
- pw_cli.plugins.callable_with_no_args(plugin: pw_cli.plugins.Plugin) None ¶
Checks that a plugin is callable without arguments.
May be used for the validator argument to Registry.
- pw_cli.plugins.find_all_in_parents(name: str, path: pathlib.Path) Iterator[pathlib.Path] ¶
Searches all parent directories of the path for files or directories.
- pw_cli.plugins.find_in_parents(name: str, path: pathlib.Path) Optional[pathlib.Path] ¶
Searches parent directories of the path for a file or directory.
- pw_cli.plugins.import_submodules(module: module, recursive: bool = False) None ¶
Imports the submodules of a package.
This can be used to collect plugins registered with a decorator from a directory.