An RPC-based logging solution for Pigweed with log filtering and log drops reporting – coming soon!


This module is under construction and might change in the future.

RPC Logging#

How to Use#

1. Set up RPC#

Set up RPC for your target device. Basic deployments run RPC over a UART, with HDLC on top for framing. See pw_rpc for details on how to enable pw_rpc.

2. Set up tokenized logging (optional)#

Set up the pw_log_tokenized log backend.

3. Connect the tokenized logging handler to the MultiSink#

Create a MultiSink instance to buffer log entries. Then, make the log backend handler, pw_log_tokenized_HandleLog(), encode log entries in the log::LogEntry format, and add them to the MultiSink.

4. Create log drains and filters#

Create an RpcLogDrainMap with one RpcLogDrain for each RPC channel used to stream logs. Optionally, create a FilterMap with Filter objects with different IDs. Provide these map to the LogService and register the latter with the application’s RPC service. The RpcLogDrainMap provides a convenient way to access and maintain each RpcLogDrain. Attach each RpcLogDrain to the MultiSink. Optionally, set the RpcLogDrain callback to decide if a log should be kept or dropped. This callback can be Filter::ShouldDropLog.

5. Flush the log drains in the background#

Depending on the product’s requirements, create a thread to flush all RpcLogDrains or one thread per drain. The thread(s) must continuously call RpcLogDrain::Flush() to pull entries from the MultiSink and send them to the log listeners. Alternatively, use RpcLogDrain::Trickle to control the rate of log entries streamed. Optionally, set up a callback to notify the thread(s) when a drain is open.

Logging over RPC diagrams#

Sample RPC logs request#

The log listener, e.g. a computer, requests logs via RPC. The log service receives the request and sets up the corresponding RpcLogDrain to start the log stream.

graph TD computer[Computer]-->pw_rpc; pw_rpc-->log_service[LogService]; log_service-->rpc_log_drain_pc[RpcLogDrain<br>streams to<br>computer];;

Sample logging over RPC#

Logs are streamed via RPC to a computer, and to another log listener. There can also be internal log readers, i.e. MultiSink::Drains, attached to the MultiSink, such as a writer to persistent memory, for example.

graph TD source1[Source 1]-->log_api[pw_log API]; source2[Source 2]-->log_api; log_api-->log_backend[Log backend]; log_backend-->multisink[MultiSink]; multisink-->drain[MultiSink::Drain]; multisink-->rpc_log_drain_pc[RpcLogDrain<br>streams to<br>computer]; multisink-->rpc_log_drain_other[RpcLogDrain<br>streams to<br>other log listener]; drain-->other_consumer[Other log consumer<br>e.g. persistent memory]; rpc_log_drain_pc-->pw_rpc; rpc_log_drain_other-->pw_rpc; pw_rpc-->computer[Computer]; pw_rpc-->other_listener[Other log<br>listener];

Relation to pw_log and pw_log_tokenized#

pw_log_rpc is often used in combination with pw_log and pw_log_tokenized. The diagram below shows the order of execution after invoking a pw_log macro.

flowchart TD project["`**your project code**`"] --> pw_log["`**pw_log** *facade*`"] --> token_backend["`**pw_log_tokenized** *backend for pw_log*`"] --> token_facade["`**pw_log_tokenized:handler** *facade*`"] --> custom_backend["`**your custom code** *backend for pw_log_tokenized:handler*`"] --> pw_log_rpc["`**pw_log_rpc**`"];
  • See Facades for an explanation of facades and backends.

  • See pw_log_tokenized_HandleLog() and pw_log_tokenized_HandleMessageVaList() in //pw_system/ for an example of how pw_system implements your custom code (pw_log_tokenized backend).

Components Overview#

LogEntry and LogEntries#

RPC logging uses LogEntry to encapsulate each entry’s data, such as level, timestamp, and message. LogEntries can hold multiple instances of LogEntry to send more data using fewer transmissions. The LogEntries has an optional field for the first message’s sequence ID that corresponds to the count of each LogEntry that passes the log filter and is sent. A client can use this sequence ID and the number of messages in a LogEntries to figure out if logs were dropped during transmission.

RPC log service#

The LogService class is an RPC service that provides a way to request a log stream sent via RPC and configure log filters. Thus, it helps avoid using a different protocol for logs and RPCs over the same interface(s). It requires a RpcLogDrainMap to assign stream writers and delegate the log stream flushing to the user’s preferred method, as well as a FilterMap to retrieve and modify filters. The client may also stop streaming the logs by calling Cancel() or RequestCompletion() using the RawClientReader interface. Note that Cancel() may lead to dropped logs. To prevent dropped logs use RequestCompletion() and enable PW_RPC_REQUEST_COMPLETION_CALLBACK e.g. -DPW_RPC_REQUEST_COMPLETION_CALLBACK=1. If PW_RPC_REQUEST_COMPLETION_CALLBACK is not enabled, RequestCompletion() call will not stop the logging stream.


An RpcLogDrain reads from the MultiSink instance that buffers logs, then packs, and sends the retrieved log entries to the log listener. One RpcLogDrain is needed for each log listener. An RpcLogDrain needs a thread to continuously call Flush() to maintain the log stream. A thread can maintain multiple log streams, but it must not be the same thread used by the RPC server, to avoid blocking it.

Each RpcLogDrain is identified by a known RPC channel ID and requires a rpc::RawServerWriter to write the packed multiple log entries. This writer is assigned by the LogService::Listen RPC.

RpcLogDrains can also be provided an open RPC writer, to constantly stream logs without the need to request them. This is useful in cases where the connection to the client is dropped silently because the log stream can continue when reconnected without the client requesting logs again if the error handling is set to kIgnoreWriterErrors otherwise the writer will be closed.

An RpcLogDrain must be attached to a MultiSink containing multiple log::LogEntrys. When Flush is called, the drain acquires the rpc::RawServerWriter ‘s write buffer, grabs one log::LogEntry from the multisink, encodes it into a log::LogEntries stream, and repeats the process until the write buffer is full. Then the drain calls rpc::RawServerWriter::Write to flush the write buffer and repeats the process until all the entries in the MultiSink are read or an error is found.

The user must provide a buffer large enough for the largest entry in the MultiSink while also accounting for the interface’s Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU). If the RpcLogDrain finds a drop message count as it reads the MultiSink it will insert a message in the stream with the drop message count in the log proto dropped optional field. The receiving end can display the count with the logs if desired.


Provides a convenient way to access all or a single RpcLogDrain by its RPC channel ID.


The module includes a sample thread that flushes each drain sequentially. RpcLogDrainThread takes an encoding buffer span at construction. RpcLogDrainThreadWithBuffer takes a template parameter for the buffer size, which must be large enough to fit at least one log entry.

Future work might replace this with enqueueing the flush work on a work queue. The user can also choose to have different threads flushing individual RpcLogDrains with different priorities.

When creating a RpcLogDrainThread, the thread can be configured to rate limit logs by introducing a limit to how many logs can be flushed from each sink before a configurable sleep period begins to give the sinks time to handle the flushed logs. For example, if the rate limiting is configured to 2 log bundles per flush with minimum delay of 100ms between flushes, the logging thread will send at most 20 log bundles per second over each sink. Log bundle size is dictated by the size of the encode buffer provided to the RpcLogDrainThread.

Rate limiting is helpful in cases where transient bursts of high volumes of logs cause transport buffers to saturate. By rate limiting the RPC log drain, the transport buffers are given time to send data. As long as the average logging rate is significantly less than the rate limit imposed by the RpcLogDrainThread, the logging pipeline should be more resilient high volume log bursts.

Rate limiting log drains is particularly helpful for systems that collect logs to a multisink in bulk when communications aren’t available (e.g. collecting early boot logs until the logging thread starts). If a very full log buffer is suddenly flushed to the sinks without rate limiting, it’s possible to overwhelm the output buffers if they don’t have sufficient headroom.


Introducing a logging drain rate limit will increase logging latency, but usually not by much. It’s important to tune the rate limit configuration to ensure it doesn’t unnecessarily introduce a logging bottleneck or significantly increase latency.

Calling OpenUnrequestedLogStream() is a convenient way to set up a log stream that is started without the need to receive an RCP request for logs.

The RpcLogDrainThread sets up a callback for each drain, to be notified when a drain is opened and flushing must resume.

Log Drops#

Unfortunately, logs can be dropped and not reach the destination. This module expects to cover all cases and be able to notify the user of log drops when possible. Logs can be dropped when

  • They don’t pass a filter. This is the expected behavior, so filtered logs will not be tracked as dropped logs.

  • The drains are too slow to keep up. In this case, the ring buffer is full of undrained entries; when new logs come in, old entries are dropped. The log stream will contain a LogEntry message with the number of dropped logs. E.g.

    Dropped 15 logs due to slow reader

  • There is an error creating or adding a new log entry, and the ring buffer is notified that the log had to be dropped. The log stream will contain a LogEntry message with the number of dropped logs. E.g.

    Dropped 15 logs due to slow reader

  • A log entry is too large for the stack buffer. The log stream will contain an error message with the drop count. Provide a log buffer that fits the largest entry added to the MultiSink to avoid this error. E.g.

    Dropped 1 log due to stack buffer too small

  • A log entry is too large for the outbound buffer. The log stream will contain an error message with the drop count. Provide a log buffer that fits the largest entry added to the MultiSink to avoid this error. E.g.

    Dropped 1 log due to outbound buffer too small

  • There are detected errors transmitting log entries. The log stream will contain a LogEntry with an error message and the number of dropped logs the next time the stream is flushed only if the drain’s error handling is set to close the stream on error. E.g.

    Dropped 10 logs due to writer error

  • There are undetected errors transmitting or receiving log entries, such as an interface interruption. Clients can calculate the number of logs lost in transit using the sequence ID and number of entries in each stream packet. E.g.

    Dropped 50 logs due to transmission error

The drop count is combined when possible, and reported only when an entry, that passes any filters, is going to be sent.

Log Filtering#

A Filter anywhere in the path of a LogEntry proto, for example, in the PW_LOG* macro implementation, or in an RpcLogDrain if using RPC logging. The log filtering service provides read and modify access to the Filters registered in the FilterMap.

How to Use#

1. Set up RPC#

Set up RPC for your target device. See pw_rpc for details.

2. Create Filters#

Provide each Filter with its own container for the FilterRules as big as the number of rules desired. These rules can be pre-poluated.

3. Create a FilterMap and FilterService#

Set up the FilterMap with the filters than can be modified with the FilterService. Register the service with the RPC server.

4. Use RPCs to retrieve and modify filter rules#

Components Overview#


Contains a set of values that are compared against a log when set. All conditions must be met for the rule to be met.

  • action: drops or keeps the log if the other conditions match. The rule is ignored when inactive.

  • any_flags_set: the condition is met if this value is 0 or the log has any of these flags set.

  • level_greater_than_or_equal: the condition is met when the log level is greater than or equal to this value.

  • module_equals: the condition is met if this byte array is empty, or the log module equals the contents of this byte array.

  • thread_equals: the condition is met if this byte array is empty or the log thread equals the contents of this byte array.


Encapsulates a collection of zero or more Filter::Rules and has an ID used to modify or retrieve its contents.


Provides a convenient way to retrieve register filters by ID.

Logging with filters example#

The following code shows a sample setup to defer the log handling to the RpcLogDrainThread to avoid having the log streaming block at the log callsite.

#include "foo/log.h"
#include "pw_log/log.h"
#include "pw_thread/detached_thread.h"
#include "pw_thread_stl/options.h"

namespace {

void RegisterServices() {
}  // namespace

int main() {
  PW_LOG_INFO("Deferred logging over RPC example");
  pw::thread::DetachedThread(pw::thread::stl::Options(), foo::log::log_thread);
  return 0;


Example of a log backend implementation, where logs enter the MultiSink and log drains and filters are set up.

#include "foo/log.h"

#include <array>
#include <cstdint>

#include "pw_chrono/system_clock.h"
#include "pw_log/proto_utils.h"
#include "pw_log_rpc/log_filter.h"
#include "pw_log_rpc/log_filter_map.h"
#include "pw_log_rpc/log_filter_service.h"
#include "pw_log_rpc/log_service.h"
#include "pw_log_rpc/rpc_log_drain.h"
#include "pw_log_rpc/rpc_log_drain_map.h"
#include "pw_log_rpc/rpc_log_drain_thread.h"
#include "pw_rpc_system_server/rpc_server.h"
#include "pw_sync/interrupt_spin_lock.h"
#include "pw_sync/lock_annotations.h"
#include "pw_sync/mutex.h"

namespace foo::log {
namespace {
constexpr size_t kLogBufferSize = 5000;
// Tokenized logs are typically 12-24 bytes.
constexpr size_t kMaxMessageSize = 32;
// kMaxLogEntrySize should be less than the MTU of the RPC channel output used
// by the provided server writer.
constexpr size_t kMaxLogEntrySize =
    pw::log_rpc::RpcLogDrain::kMinEntrySizeWithoutPayload + kMaxMessageSize;
std::array<std::byte, kLogBufferSize> multisink_buffer;

// To save RAM, share the mutex, since drains will be managed sequentially.
pw::sync::Mutex shared_mutex;
std::array<std::byte, kMaxEntrySize> client1_buffer
std::array<std::byte, kMaxEntrySize> client2_buffer
std::array<pw::log_rpc::RpcLogDrain, 2> drains = {

pw::sync::InterruptSpinLock log_encode_lock;
std::array<std::byte, kMaxLogEntrySize> log_encode_buffer

std::array<Filter::Rule, 2> logs_to_host_filter_rules;
std::array<Filter::Rule, 2> logs_to_server_filter_rules{{
        .action = Filter::Rule::Action::kKeep,
        .level_greater_than_or_equal = pw::log::FilterRule::Level::INFO_LEVEL,
        .action = Filter::Rule::Action::kDrop,
std::array<Filter, 2> filters{
    Filter(pw::as_bytes(pw::span("HOST", 4)), logs_to_host_filter_rules),
    Filter(pw::as_bytes(pw::span("WEB", 3)), logs_to_server_filter_rules),
pw::log_rpc::FilterMap filter_map(filters);

extern "C" void pw_log_tokenized_HandleLog(
    uint32_t metadata, const uint8_t message[], size_t size_bytes) {
  int64_t timestamp =
  std::lock_guard lock(log_encode_lock);
  pw::Result<pw::ConstByteSpan> encoded_log_result =
        metadata, message, size_bytes, timestamp, log_encode_buffer);

  if (!encoded_log_result.ok()) {
}  // namespace

pw::log_rpc::RpcLogDrainMap drain_map(drains);
pw::log_rpc::RpcLogDrainThread log_thread(GetMultiSink(), drain_map);
pw::log_rpc::LogService log_service(drain_map);
pw::log_rpc::FilterService filter_service(filter_map);

pw::multisink::MultiSink& GetMultiSink() {
  static pw::multisink::MultiSink multisink(multisink_buffer);
  return multisink;
}  // namespace foo::log

Logging in other source files#

To defer logging, other source files must simply include pw_log/log.h and use the pw_log APIs, as long as the source set that includes foo/ is setup as the log backend.

pw_log_rpc in Python#

pw_log_rpc provides client utilities for dealing with RPC logging.

The LogStreamHandler offers APIs to start a log stream:listen_to_logs, to handle RPC stream errors: handle_log_stream_error, and RPC stream completed events: handle_log_stream_completed. It uses a provided LogStreamDecoder to delegate log parsing to.

Python API#


Utils to decode logs.

class pw_log_rpc.rpc_log_stream.LogStreamHandler(rpcs: Services, decoder: LogStreamDecoder)#

Bases: object

Handles an RPC Log Stream.

  • rpcs – RPC services to request RPC Log Streams.

  • decoder – LogStreamDecoder

__init__(rpcs: Services, decoder: LogStreamDecoder) None#
handle_log_stream_completed(status: Status) None#

Resets the log stream RPC on completed to avoid losing logs.

Override this function to change default behavior.

handle_log_stream_error(error: Status) None#

Resets the log stream RPC on error to avoid losing logs.

Override this function to change default behavior.

listen_to_logs() None#

Requests Logs streamed over RPC.

The RPCs remain open until the server cancels or closes them, either with a response or error packet.

property source_name: str#