This module provides the building blocks for trusted software update systems.


Software update is any system that enables a product vendor to deliver some kind of improvement to a product consumer, in good faith.

To that definition, a software update system should design toward the following goals.

  1. The product receives feature, performance, stability, UX improvements with minimum intervention from both the vendor and consumer. The product just automatically gets increasingly more useful.

  2. The product receives timely security patches in response to newly discovered vulnerabilities and/or expiring trust material etc. The product is self-healing.

  3. All software updates require consumer approval. The product vendor being able to remotely modify a product’s behavior is both fantastic and risky. The system must mitigate insider attacks that may happen by mistake, willingly, or when compelled. The product vendor should strive to help the consumer make an informed decision over whether or not, when, and how to check / install what updates, to the extent feasible and as required by local regulations.

  4. Software updates liberate engineering workflows. While security-heavy systems tend to compete with consumer-facing features for attention and resources and thus perceived as “necessary evil”, it is often a misconception. With careful design, security features can preserve and enlarge flexibility in affected workflows. No law, no freedom.

System overview

At its core, software update is a system that allows a consumer to download some file provided by some vendor by choice. That choice might be “I want to be left alone. I will not check for updates and I wish not to be solicited”, or “I want to sign my life away and never be bothered again. Please automatically check and install all updates as soon as they are available”, or anything in between those two extremes.

How a consumer approaches such a choice depends on many factors.

  1. The consumer’s ability to authenticate the files, and by derivation, their vendor. Authentication enables the consumer to identify the update vendor ( with cryptographic non-deniability) and assign some baseline trust to it based on individual judgment and the public credibility of the vendor.


    From the vendor’s point of view, authentication also protects the vendor’s product from being tampered by attackers or consumers. Traditionally that has been the main purpose of security in software update systems.

  2. The consumer’s ability to independently audit the update files. e.g. by re-producing bitwise-identical binaries from available source code, hiring an accredited security researcher / investigator, looking up the files from a publicly available non-forgeable ledger etc.

  3. The consumer’s ability to assess the “bomb radius” of allowing an update, i.e. the worst possible fallout that may result from the vendor betraying the consumer’s baseline trust. On platforms with well designed trust structure, it is easy for a generally informed consumer to reason that a misbehaving car infotainment app won’t be able to take control of “system” and drive the car into a ditch, unless the application manages to escape its capabilities sandbox set up by the governing system software, either by exploiting a bug in the system or by colluding with the system vendor.

  4. The consumer’s situation. All else being equal, a developer evaluating a smart speaker with a test account, a US senator carrying a smartphone, and an airliner technician maintaining a fleet of passenger aircraft will approach software update choices with drastically different discretion.

It is in the best interests of both consumers and vendors to design and fit software update systems in various platforms in a way that bolsters mutual trust. So let’s discuss this further in the “security model”.

Security model


pw_software_update adopts TUF as the authentication framework. This framework is well-formulated in the TUF specification (a leisure read). To help with context continuity, the most relevant points are captured below.


🚧🏗 This documentation is under construction. The trucks were last seen here. 🏗🚧



Deployment model

Getting started

Developer guides

POUF(Protocol, Operations, Usage and Format)

Update serving

Update consumption

Requesting a security review